Active Surveillance for Low-Risk Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer

  • Rodolfo HurleEmail author
  • Carmen Maccagnano
  • Giovanni Forni


Active Surveillance (AS) is an accepted policy in several low-risk malignancies, such as prostate cancer, small renal tumours, and in clinical stage I seminomatous germ cell tumours.

Regarding Bladder Cancer (BC), Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer (NMIBC) accounts for ~50% of newly diagnosed cancers; although an high percentage of local recurrence has been reported in literature, only a small number of patients will progress to Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer (MIBC). In this context, AS might be a reasonable strategy in patients presenting with small low-grade pTa/pT1a recurrent papillary BC, with acceptable risks of stage and grade progression. Recently the mid-term results from the BIAS (BIAS: Bladder cancer Italian Active Surveillance) Project, whose primary outcome was the check of adherence to AS its self have been published.


Active surveillance Low-risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rodolfo Hurle
    • 1
    Email author
  • Carmen Maccagnano
    • 2
  • Giovanni Forni
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of UrologyIstituto Clinico Humanitas IRCCS, Clinical and Research HospitalMilanItaly
  2. 2.Division of Urology, Department of SurgeryASST Lariana, Sant’Anna HospitalComoItaly
  3. 3.Humanitas UniversityMilanItaly

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