New Optical Improvements in Bladder Cancer Diagnosis: Seeing Better for a Better Management?

  • Benjamin Pradère
  • Idir Ouzaid
  • Evanguelos Xylinas


New imaging techniques in bladder cancer can be classified according to their aim as macroscopic and microscopic. Macroscopic techniques include photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) and narrow-band imaging (NBI) while microscopic techniques include optical coherence tomography (OCT) and confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE). PDD is able to reduce the risk of recurrence but no data, to date, have demonstrated its association with a reduction in disease progression. Cost analyses for using PDD suggest that its use can reduce the overall cost of bladder cancer care by improving the patients’ recurrence-free survival. Microscopic technologies are currently in the early stages of experimental research but, in the future, could provide real-time evaluation and thereby bring the microscope into the office cystoscopy and in the operative room, with great improvements in bladder cancer diagnosis and management.


PDD NBI SPIES OCT CLE New technologies 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Benjamin Pradère
    • 1
  • Idir Ouzaid
    • 2
  • Evanguelos Xylinas
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of UrologyUniversity of ToursToursFrance
  2. 2.Department of UrologyBichat-Claude Bernard Hospital, Assistance-Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris Descartes UniversityParisFrance

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