Surgical Treatment of PVR Cases

  • Marco MuraEmail author
  • Antonella D’Aponte


  1. 1.

    Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is a disease that develops as a complication of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment.

  2. 2.

    The accumulation of fluid in the subretinal space and the tractional force of the vitreous on the retina result in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment.

  3. 3.

    The RPE cells lay down fibrotic membranes while they migrate, and these membranes contract and pull at the retina.

  4. 4.

    For a successful management of posterior PVR is important: localization of all retinal breaks and release of the traction through membrane peeling and dissection.

  5. 5.

    Retinectomy implies the complete excision of the entire complex formed by the vitreous base, anterior membranes, and shortened retina.



Proliferative vitreoretinopathy Periretinal membranes Retinal breaks Membrane peeling Retinectomy 


  1. 1.
    Leaver PK. Proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Br J Ophthalmol. 1995;79(10):871–2. PMC 505283. PMID 7488570 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Retina and vitreous of Texas. Retrieved 28 May 2009.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Spirn MJ, Regillo C. Proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Retinal Physician. 2008. Retrieved 29 May 2009.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ceron OM, Arroyo JG. Better outcomes may be ahead for PVR. Rev Ophthalmol. 2009;16:1. Retrieved 29 May 2009Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kase S, Saito W, Ohno S, Ishida S. Cyclo-oxygenase-2 expression in human idiopathic epiretinal membrane. Retina. 2010;30:719–23. PMID 19996819 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Erdiakov A, Gavrilova S. Influence of lornoxicam and triamcinolone on the dynamics of eye remodeling in concanavalin model of inflammation. Acta Ophthalmol. 2014;92. Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hiscott P, Grierson I. Subretinal membranes of proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Br J Ophthalmol. 1991;75(1):53. PMC 504108. PMID 1991089CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Casaroli-Marano RP, Pagan R, Vilaró S. Epithelial–mesenchymal transition in proliferative vitreoretinopathy: intermediate filament protein expression in retinal pigment epithelial cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1999;40(9):2062–72. PMID 10440262 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Connor TB, Roberts AB, Spom MB, Danielpour D, Dart LL, Michels RG, Bustros SD, Enger C, Kato H, Lansing M, Hayashi H, Glaser BM. Correlation of fibrosis and transforming growth factor-β type 2 levels in the eye. J Clin Invest. 1989;83(5):1661–6. PMC 303874. PMID 2708527 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Andrews A, Balciunaite E, Leong FL, Tallquist M, Soriano P, Refojo M, Kazlauskas A. Platelet-derived growth factor plays a key role in proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1999;40(11):2683–9. PMID 10509666PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kauffmann DJ, van Meurs JC, Mertens DA, Peperkamp E, Master XC, Gerritsen ME. Cytokines in vitreous humor: interleukin-6 is elevated in proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1994;35(3):900–6. PMID 8125753PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Balles MW. Traumatic retinopathy. In: Albert DM, Jakobiec FA, editors. Principles and practice of ophthalmology, vol. 2. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1994. p. 1029–31.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Giovinazzo VJ, Yannuzzi LA, Soreiison JA, et al. The ocular complications of boxing. Ophthalmology. 1987;94:587–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Goffestein R, Burton TC. Differentiating traumatic from nontraumatic retinal detachment. Ophthalmology. 1982;89:361–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Malbran E, Dodds R, Hulsbus R. Traumatic retinal detachment. Mod Probi Ophthalmol. 1972;10:479–89.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cleary PE, Ryan SJ. Histology of wound, vitreous, and retina in experimental posterior penetrating eye injury in the rhesus monkey. Am J Ophthalmol. 1979;88:221–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cleary PE, Ryan SJ. Method of production and natural history of experimental posterior penetrating eye injury in the rhesus monkey. Am J Ophthalmol. 1979;88:212–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gregor Z, Ryan SJ. Combined posterior contusion and penetrating injury in the pig eye: I. A natural history study. Br J Ophthalmol. 1982;66:793–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cleary PE, Ryan SJ. Experimental posterior penetrating eye injury in the rabbit: I. Method of production and natural history. Br J Ophthamol. 1979;63:306–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cleary PE, Ryan SJ. Experimental posterior penetrating eye injury in the rabbit: II. Histology of wound, vitreous, and retina. Br J Ophthalmol. 1979;63:312–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cleary PE, Ryan SJ. Vitrectomy in penetrating eye injury. Results of a controlled trial of vitrectomy in an experimental posterior penetrating eye injury in the rhesus monkey. Arch Ophthalmol. 1981;99:287–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gregor Z, Ryan SJ. Complete and core vitrectomies in the treatment of experimental posterior penetrating eye injury in the rhesus monkey: I. Clinical features. Arch Ophthalmol. 1983;101:441–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gregor Z, Ryan SJ. Complete and core vitrectomies in the treatment of experimental posterior penetrating eye injury in the rhesus monkey: II. Histologic features. Arch Ophthalmol. 1983;101:446–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hsu HT, Ryan SJ. Natural history of penetrating ocular injury with retinal laceration in the monkey. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 1986;224:1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Cox MS. Retinal breaks caused by blunt nonperforating trauma at the point of impact. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 1980;78:414–66.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Cox MS, Schepens CL, Freeman HM. Retinal detachment due to ocular contusion. Arch Ophthalmol. 1966;76:678–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Tan HS, Mur M, Oberstein SY, de Smet MD. Primary retinectomy in proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Am J Ophthalmol. 2010;149(3):447–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kon CH, Asaria RH, Occleston NL, Khaw PT, Aylward GW. Risk factors for proliferative vitreoretinopathy after primary vitrectomy: a prospective study. Br J Ophthalmol. 2000;84(5):506–11. PMC 1723478. PMID 10781515 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kon CH, Tranos P, Aylward GW. Risk factors in proliferative vitreoretinopathy. In: Kirchoff B, Wong D, editors. Vitreo-retinal surgery. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005. p. 121–34. ISBN: 978-3-540-20044-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Wilmer Eye InstituteJohns Hopkins UniversityBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.The King Khaled Eye Specialist HospitalRiyadhKingdom of Saudi Arabia

Personalised recommendations