Vital Signs: Parameters, Frequency, and Pediatric and Cardiac Early Warning Scores

  • Veronica Mattioli


Vital parameters are indicative of the person’s general conditions and are listed below: respiratory rate, heart rate, blood pressure, temperature, and neurocognitive state.

Respiratory rate increases in any condition of respiratory fatigue due to airway obstruction, difficulty in gas exchange, or increased metabolic demands.

In addition to respiratory dynamics, it is important to evaluate oxygen saturation, a useful parameter of the tissue oxygenation state at a peripheral level.

Heart rate, blood pressure, refill time, and cyanosis evaluation indicate any condition of circulatory failure that, if not promptly corrected, can lead to multiorgan damage.

Temperature can be detected in various sites including core, near-core, and peripheral: this parameter is a sign of effective or poor peripheral perfusion.

Finally, neurocognitive impairment may be both respiratory and circulatory failure.

Multiparameter scales can be used to evaluate vital parameters, such as PEWS and C-CHEWS.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Veronica Mattioli
    • 1
  1. 1.Paediatric and Developing Age Cardiology and Heart Surgery Unit, Department Cardio-Vascular and ThoracicUniversity Hospital of Bologna Policlinico S. Orsola-MalpighiBolognaItaly

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