(Re)Forming the State: Recruiting the Dead and Revitalizing Transitional Justice

  • Michelle Frances Carmody


This chapter looks at the reconfiguring of transitional justice in the twenty-first century. Following the dislocations of the 1990s, which brought not only conflict over reconciliation but also conflict over neoliberal economic restructuring, state makers embraced the practices of memory and anti-impunity. These practices were recruited to serve as symbols of a post-authoritarian national identity, for which the state positioned itself as guardian.


  1. Atencio, Rebecca J. Memory’s Turn: Reckoning with Dictatorship in Brazil. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2014.Google Scholar
  2. Bachelet, Michele. ‘Discurso de S.E. la Presidenta de la República, Michele Bachelet, en Inauguración del Museo de la memoria y los Derechos Humanos, 11 January 2010.’ Museo de la Memoria. Accessed March 24, 2016,
  3. Bell, Vikki. ‘The Politics of “Memory” in the Long Present of the Southern Cone.’ In The Memory of State Terrorism in the Southern Cone: Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay, edited by Francesca Lessa and Vincent Druliolle, 209–222. New York: Palgrave, 2011.Google Scholar
  4. Carmody, Michelle. ‘Archiving Human Rights in Latin America: Transitional Justice and Shifting Visions of Political Change.’ In The Routledge History of Human Rights, edited by Jean Quataert and Lora Wildenthal. New York: Routledge, 2019.Google Scholar
  5. Centeno, Miguel A., and Agustin E. Ferraro. ‘Republics of the Possible: State Building in Latin America and Spain.’ In State and Nation Making in Latin America and Spain: Republics of the Possible, edited by Miguel Centeno and Agustin Ferraro, 3–24. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013.Google Scholar
  6. Centro de Estudios Legales y Sociales. Derechos Humanos en Argentina: Informe 2012. Buenos Aires: Siglo XXI, 2012.Google Scholar
  7. Chambers, Sarah C. ‘Citizens Before the Law: The Role of Courts in Postindependence State Building in Spanish America.’ In State and Nation Making in Latin America and Spain: Republics of the Possible, edited by Miguel A. Centeno and Agustin E. Ferraro, 356–374. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013.Google Scholar
  8. Chodor, Tom. Neoliberal Hegemony and the Pink Tide in Latin America: Breaking up with TINA? New York: Palgrave, 2014.Google Scholar
  9. CONADEP/Secretaria de Derechos Humanos. Nunca Más: Informe de la Comisión Nacional sobre la Desaparición de Personas. Buenos Aires: Eudeba, 2006.Google Scholar
  10. Couso, Javier, Alexandra Huneeus, and Rachel Sieder, ed., Cultures of Legality: Judicialization and Political Activism in Latin America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010.Google Scholar
  11. Crenzel, Emilio. Memory of the Argentina Disappearances: The Political History of Nunca Más. New York: Routledge, 2011.Google Scholar
  12. Crenzel, Emilio. ‘Toward a History of the Memory of Political Violence and the Disappeared in Argentina.’ In The Struggle for Memory in Latin America: Recent History and Political Violence, edited by Eugenia Allier-Montaño and Emilio Crenzel, 15–34. New York: Palgrave, 2015.Google Scholar
  13. Gillis, John R. ‘Memory and Identity: The History of a Relationship.’ In Commemorations: The Politics of National Identity, edited by John R. Gillis, 3–25. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1994.Google Scholar
  14. Gorski, Philip S. ‘Nation-ization Struggles: A Bourdieusian Theory of Nationalism.’ In Bourdieu and Historical Analysis, edited by Philip S. Gorski, 242–265. Durham and London: Duke University Press, 2013.Google Scholar
  15. Hardt, Michael, and Antonio Negri. Multitude: War and Democracy in the Age of Empire. New York: Penguin, 2004.Google Scholar
  16. Hite, Catherine, and Cath Collins. ‘Memorials, Silences, and Reawakenings.’ In The Politics of Memory in Chile: From Pinochet to Bachelet, edited by Cath Collins, Katherine Hite, and Alfredo Joignant, 133–164. Boulder and London: First Forum, 2013.Google Scholar
  17. Kaiser, Susana. ‘Argentina’s Trials: New Ways of Writing Memory.’ Latin American Perspectives 42, no. 3 (2015): 193–206.Google Scholar
  18. Kircher, Nestor. ‘Discurso Pronunciado el Día 24 de Marzo 2004.’ Discursos del Presidente Dr. Néstor Kirchner. Buenos Aires: Presidencia de la Nación, no date.Google Scholar
  19. Kirchner, Nestor. ‘Mensaje del Presidente Néstor Kirchner ante la Asamblea Legislativa, March 1, 2006.’ Discursos del Señor Presidente de la Nación Argentina, Dr. Néstor Kirchner. Buenos Aires: Ministerio del Interior, 2006.Google Scholar
  20. Larrain, Jorge. ‘Changes in Chilean Identity: Thirty Years After the Military Coup.’ Nations and Nationalism 12, no. 2 (2006): 321–338.Google Scholar
  21. Lessa, Francesca. Memory and Transitional Justice in Argentina and Uruguay: Against Impunity. New York: Palgrave, 2013.Google Scholar
  22. Mallon, Florencia E. ‘Reflections on the Ruins: Everyday Forms of State Formation in Nineteenth Century Mexico.’ In Everyday Forms of State Formation: Revolution and the Negotiation of Rule in Modern Mexico, edited by Joseph M. Gilbert and Daniel Nugent, 69–106. Durham: Duke University Press, 1995.Google Scholar
  23. Rousseff, Dilma. ‘Discurso da Presidenta da República, Dilma Rousseff, na cerimônia de instalação da Comissão da Verdade, 16 May 2012.’ Presidência de la República. Accessed March 25, 2016,
  24. Schneider, Nina. ‘Breaking the Silence of the Military Regime: New Politics of Memory in Brazil.’ Bulletin of Latin American Research 30, no. 2 (2011): 198–212.Google Scholar
  25. Stern, Steve. Remembering Pinochet’s Chile: On the Eve of London 1998. Durham and London: Duke University Press, 2004.Google Scholar
  26. Svampa, Maristella. La Sociedad Excluyente. la Argentina bajo el signo del neoliberlismo. Buenos Aires: Taurus, 2005.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michelle Frances Carmody
    • 1
  1. 1.University of MelbourneMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations