Muscular Dystrophy

  • Jose M. Ramirez


Muscular dystrophy is an inherited condition affecting boys that is associated with a shortened life expectancy. Some of these patients will benefit from surgical intervention for associated conditions such as scoliosis as well as foot and hip pathologies.


Dystrophin Becker’s Gower’s sign Equinovarus foot 

What protein is defective in MD?


What is the inheritance pattern of MD?

X-linked recessive

How does Becker’s MD differ from Duchenne’s MD?

Becker’s is related to a decrease in dystrophin

What is Gower’s sign ?

Rising by using arms to compensate for weakness or core muscles

What foot abnormality is seen in MD?

Equinovarus foot

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jose M. Ramirez
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Orthopaedic SurgeryAlpert Medical School of Brown UniversityProvidenceUSA

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