Techniques of Intraosseous Access

  • James Bardes
  • Aaron StrumwasserEmail author


  • Intraosseous (IO) infusion is based on the principle that medullary veins of long bones remain patent during shock and hypovolemia.

  • IO infusion sites include the humerus, proximal tibia, distal femur, and manubrium.

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Trauma, Emergency Surgery and Surgical Critical CareUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA

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