Spontaneous Incidence of Ocular Abnormalities in Laboratory Animals

  • Brian C. GilgerEmail author
  • Michael H. Brown
  • Robert J. Munger
  • Joshua T. Bartoe
  • Martin Bussieres
  • Cynthia S. Cook


This chapter provides incidence data on spontaneous ophthalmic abnormalities in the most commonly used species in toxicological and pharmacokinetic drug research. This data can be used to better differentiate test article-related ocular findings from background incidental lesions to enhance interpretation of ophthalmic findings, improve speed of drug development, reduce the number of studies that need to be repeated, and thus reduce the overall number of animals used in toxicology research and drug development.


Incidence Spontaneous Ocular lesions Laboratory animal Ophthalmology Ocular toxicology 



The authors thank the following contract research organizations and individuals for assistance in collection of the data for this chapter:

Charles River Laboratories, Wil Research, Ashland, Ohio. Robert Wally, Brian Ronk and Jeanette Howell

Charles River Laboratories, Reno, Nevada. Dr. Margaret Collins

Charles River Laboratories, Horsham, Pennsylvania. Dr. Douglas Learn

Envigo, East Millstone, New Jersey. Christopher Blum

MPI Research, Mattawan, Michigan

Powered Research, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. Dr. David Culp, Justin Prater


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brian C. Gilger
    • 1
    Email author
  • Michael H. Brown
    • 2
  • Robert J. Munger
    • 3
  • Joshua T. Bartoe
    • 1
  • Martin Bussieres
    • 4
  • Cynthia S. Cook
    • 5
  1. 1.MPI Research Ophthalmology Services54943 N Main St.MattawanUSA
  2. 2.Animal Eye Center of New JerseyLittle FallsUSA
  3. 3.Animal Ophthalmology ClinicDallasUSA
  4. 4.V&O Services Inc.Saint-LazareCanada
  5. 5.Veterinary Vision, Inc.San CarlosUSA

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