Melanoma pp 533-547 | Cite as

Therapeutic Cancer Vaccines for Melanoma

  • Kaitlin M. Peace
  • Garth S. Herbert
  • Timothy J. Vreeland
  • G. Travis Clifton
  • George E. Peoples


Melanoma has long been a prominent focus of investigation for cancer immunotherapy due to its intrinsically immunogenic nature, typically a consequence of a high mutational load. Furthermore, tumor infiltration by lymphocytes provides evidence of endogenous immune activity, as does the spontaneous regression described in some tumors. Conversely, the melanoma microenvironment promotes upregulation of immunosuppressive cells (myeloid-derived suppressor cells and regulatory T cells) and cytokines (such as IL-6, IL-10, TNFα, TGFβ, and VEGF) facilitating evasion of the immune response. The tumor microenvironment contains several targets for immunomodulation that are under active investigation. In this chapter, we will explore the development of immunotherapy for the treatment of melanoma, beginning with early, nonspecific immunomodulation through more recent advances in melanoma vaccines with specific discussion of several phase III clinical trials for peptide, viral, dendritic cell, and whole tumor cell-based vaccines.


Melanoma Vaccines Cancer Immunotherapy Tumor-associated antigen 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kaitlin M. Peace
    • 1
  • Garth S. Herbert
    • 1
  • Timothy J. Vreeland
    • 2
  • G. Travis Clifton
    • 1
  • George E. Peoples
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of General SurgerySan Antonio Military Medical CenterFort Sam HoustonUSA
  2. 2.Department of General SurgeryWomack Army Medical CenterFt. BraggUSA
  3. 3.Cancer Insight, LLCSan AntonioUSA

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