Melanoma pp 515-524 | Cite as

Immuno-Oncolytic Virotherapy for Melanoma

  • Helene Woyczesczyk
  • Karim EssaniEmail author


Oncolytic virotherapy is a targeted immunotherapeutic approach to induce tumor cell lysis in vivo, with efficacy in a wide range of cancers, including melanoma. Viruses are carefully selected based on their ability to demonstrate selective tumor cell replication, and viral genomic modifications are used to enhance such replication and create a heightened immune response. Current use of oncolytic viruses (OVs) in melanoma ranges from discovery in the experimental phase to proof of efficacy in clinical trials. With the 2015 approval of Talimogene laherparepvec for the treatment of advanced melanoma, we have added yet another tool to effectively treat those with locally unresectable or in-transit disease. Recently, combination therapy trials with OVs and immune checkpoint inhibitors have shown to have some very promising results in patients with advanced, often metastatic, melanoma. This chapter includes an overview of the history of and making of OVs as well as a detailed summary of current clinical trials in melanoma patients. With new experimental data on oncolytic virotherapy published in ever-increasing numbers, the future of OVs for the treatment of melanoma seems to hold promise as a major component of treatment for melanoma.


Melanoma Oncolytic virus Oncolytic virotherapy Talimogene laherparepvec Immunotherapy Combination therapy Immune checkpoint inhibitor 



     Adverse event


     Biosafety level


     Cluster of differentiation


    Conditionally replicative adenoviruses


   Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen


     Dendritic cell


     Durable response


     FOOD and Drug Administration


   Granulocyte monocyte colony-stimulating factor


 High molecular weight tumor-associated antigen


     Herpes simplex virus






    Immune-related progression free survival




    Melanoma-associated antigen


    Major histocompatibility complex


    Matrix metalloprotease


     Measles virus


    Neutralizing anti-reovirus antibodies


    Newcastle disease virus


    Natural killer


 Oncovex (GM-CSF) Pivotal Trial in Melanoma


  Overall response rate


    Oncolytic virus


    Programmed death receptor


    Plaque forming unit


   Personal protective equipment


   Progression prior to response


 Response evaluation criteria in solid tumors


  Tumor-associated antigen


  Transforming growth factor


  Tumor necrosis factor


  Tanapox virus


   Regulatory T-cells


   Talimogene laherparepvec


   Vesicular stomatitis virus


    Vaccinia virus


     Wild type



We thank Dr. John Jellies, Dr. Cecil McIntire, and Susan McIntire for editorial comments.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Virology, Department of Biological SciencesWestern Michigan UniversityKalamazooUSA

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