Advertisement

Melanoma pp 425-436 | Cite as

Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy for Melanoma

  • Ann Y. Chung
  • Catalina Mosquera
  • Jan H. Wong
Chapter

Abstract

Intraoperative lymphatic mapping and selective sentinel lymphadenectomy (ILM and SLND) has dramatically altered the surgical management of the regional lymphatics in cutaneous melanoma. Once considered a standard component in the surgical management of patients with cutaneous melanoma, immediate complete lymph node dissection (CLND) or elective lymph node dissection (ELND) is now infrequently performed. Now commonly referred to as “sentinel lymph node biopsy,” ILM and SLND is an operative technique that was developed in order to identify patients with cutaneous melanoma who might benefit from the early detection and surgical management of metastatic disease in the regional lymph nodes while avoiding the significant morbidity of CLND in individuals without regional lymph node metastases and who had little likelihood of benefit from that procedure.

The development of ILM and SLND as a reproducible operative technique to identify metastatic disease in clinically node-negative patients with cutaneous melanoma represents a surgical approach to understanding the underlying mechanism of the metastatic process in cutaneous melanoma. This chapter will highlight the rationale, the history, current status, and future of ILM and SLND.

Keywords

Melanoma Sentinel node Isosulfan blue Radioguided surgery Lymphadenectomy Multicenter Selective Lymphadenectomy Trial 

References

  1. 1.
    Norris W. Eight cases of melanosis with pathological and therapeutic remarks on that disease. London: Longman, Brown, Green, Longmans, and Roberts; 1857.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Snow H. Twenty two years’ experience in the treatment of cancerous and other tumours. London: Ballliere, Tindall, and Cox; 1898.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Snow H. Abstract of a lecture on melanotic cancerous disease. Lancet. 1892;2:872–4.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Handley W. The pathology of melanotic growths in the relation to their operative treatment. Lancet. 1907;927(96):1.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Balch CM, Soong SJ, Murad TM, Ingalls AL, Maddox WA. A multifactorial analysis of melanoma: III. Prognostic factors in melanoma patients with lymph node metastases (stage II). Ann Surg. 1981;193:377–88.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Roses DF, Provet JA, Harris MN, Gumport SL, Dubin N. Prognosis of patients with pathologic stage II cutaneous malignant melanoma. Ann Surg. 1985;201:103–7.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Callery C, Cochran AJ, Roe DJ, et al. Factors prognostic for survival in patients with malignant melanoma spread to the regional lymph nodes. Ann Surg. 1982;196:69–75.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cohen MH, Ketcham AS, Felix EL, et al. Prognostic factors in patients undergoing lymphadenectomy for malignant melanoma. Ann Surg. 1977;186:635–42.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Morton DL, Wanek L, Nizze JA, Elashoff RM, Wong JH. Improved long-term survival after lymphadenectomy of melanoma metastatic to regional nodes. Analysis of prognostic factors in 1134 patients from the John Wayne cancer clinic. Ann Surg. 1991;214:491–9. discussion 9–501CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gumport SL, Harris MN. Results of regional lymph node dissection for melanoma. Ann Surg. 1974;179:105–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Davis NC. Cutaneous melanoma. The Queensland experience. Curr Probl Surg. 1976;13:1–63.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Slingluff CL Jr, Stidham KR, Ricci WM, Stanley WE, Seigler HF. Surgical management of regional lymph nodes in patients with melanoma. Experience with 4682 patients. Ann Surg. 1994;219:120–30.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Allen AC, Spitz S. Malignant melanoma; a clinicopathological analysis of the criteria for diagnosis and prognosis. Cancer. 1953;6:1–45.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lane N, Lattes R, Malm J. Clinicopathological correlations in a series of 117 malignant melanomas of the skin of adults. Cancer. 1958;11:1025–43.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Clark WH Jr, From L, Bernardino EA, Mihm MC. The histogenesis and biologic behavior of primary human malignant melanomas of the skin. Cancer Res. 1969;29:705–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Breslow A. Thickness, cross-sectional areas and depth of invasion in the prognosis of cutaneous melanoma. Ann Surg. 1970;172:902–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Urist MM, Balch CM, Soong SJ, et al. Head and neck melanoma in 534 clinical Stage I patients. A prognostic factors analysis and results of surgical treatment. Ann Surg. 1984;200:769–75.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Balch CM, Murad TM, Soong SJ, Ingalls AL, Halpern NB, Maddox WA. A multifactorial analysis of melanoma: prognostic histopathological features comparing Clark's and Breslow’s staging methods. Ann Surg. 1978;188:732–42.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Balch CM, Soong S, Ross MI, et al. Long-term results of a multi-institutional randomized trial comparing prognostic factors and surgical results for intermediate thickness melanomas (1.0 to 4.0 mm). Intergroup Melanoma Surgical Trial. Ann Surg Oncol. 2000;7:87–97.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cascinelli N, Morabito A, Santinami M, MacKie RM, Belli F. Immediate or delayed dissection of regional nodes in patients with melanoma of the trunk: a randomised trial. WHO Melanoma Programme. Lancet. 1998;351:793–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sim FH, Taylor WF, Ivins JC, Pritchard DJ, Soule EH. A prospective randomized study of the efficacy of routine elective lymphadenectomy in management of malignant melanoma. Preliminary results. Cancer. 1978;41:948–56.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Veronesi U, Adamus J, Bandiera DC, et al. Inefficacy of immediate node dissection in stage 1 melanoma of the limbs. N Engl J Med. 1977;297:627–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Balch CM, Soong SJ, Bartolucci AA, et al. Efficacy of an elective regional lymph node dissection of 1 to 4 mm thick melanomas for patients 60 years of age and younger. Ann Surg. 1996;224:255–63. discussion 63–6CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kinmonth J. The lymphatics. Diseases, lymphography, and surgery. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins; 1972.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Crispen JF, Jeffries PF. Lymphangiography: a simple method of dye infusion. JAMA. 1962;182:872–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Widschwendter P, Friedl TW, Schwentner L, et al. The influence of obesity on survival in early, high-risk breast cancer: results from the randomized SUCCESS A trial. Breast Cancer Res. 2015;17:129.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wong JH, Cagle LA, Morton DL. Lymphatic drainage of skin to a sentinel lymph node in a feline model. Ann Surg. 1991;214:637–41.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Holmes EC, Moseley HS, Morton DL, Clark W, Robinson D, Urist MM. A rational approach to the surgical management of melanoma. Ann Surg. 1977;186:481–90.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Morton DL, Wen DR, Wong JH, et al. Technical details of intraoperative lymphatic mapping for early stage melanoma. Arch Surg. 1992;127:392–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Krag DN, Meijer SJ, Weaver DL, et al. Minimal-access surgery for staging of malignant melanoma. Arch Surg. 1995;130:654–8. discussion 9–60CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Reintgen D, Cruse CW, Wells K, et al. The orderly progression of melanoma nodal metastases. Ann Surg. 1994;220:759–67.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ross M, Reintgen D, Balch CM. Selective lymphadenctomy. Emerging role of lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy in the management of early stage melannoma. Semin Surg Oncol. 1993;9:219–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Thompson JF, McCarthy WH, Bosch CM, et al. Sentinel lymph node status as an indicator of the presence of metastatic melanoma in regional lymph nodes. Melanoma Res. 1995;5:255–60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Karakousis CP, Velez AF, Spellman JE Jr, Scarozza J. The technique of sentinel node biopsy. Eur J Surg Oncol. 1996;22:271–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Alex JC, Weaver DL, Fairbank JT, Rankin BS, Krag DN. Gamma-probe-guided lymph node localization in malignant melanoma. Surg Oncol. 1993;2:303–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Albertini JJ, Cruse CW, Rapaport D, et al. Intraoperative radio-lympho-scintigraphy improves sentinel lymph node identification for patients with melanoma. Ann Surg. 1996;223:217–24.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Van der Velde-Zimmermann D, Roijers JF, Bouwens-Rombouts A, et al. Molecular test for the detection of tumor cells in blood and sentinel nodes of melanoma patients. Am J Pathol. 1996;149:759–64.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Wang X, Heller R, VanVoorhis N, et al. Detection of submicroscopic lymph node metastases with polymerase chain reaction in patients with malignant melanoma. Ann Surg. 1994;220:768–74.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Nicholl MB, Elashoff D, Takeuchi H, Morton DL, Hoon DS. Molecular upstaging based on paraffin-embedded sentinel lymph nodes: ten-year follow-up confirms prognostic utility in melanoma patients. Ann Surg. 2011;253:116–22.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Lee DY, Lau BJ, Huynh KT, et al. Impact of completion lymph node dissection on patients with positive sentinel lymph node biopsy in melanoma. J Am Coll Surg. 2016;223:9–18.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Morton DL, Thompson JF, Cochran AJ, et al. Sentinel-node biopsy or nodal observation in melanoma. N Engl J Med. 2006;355:1307–17.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Morton DL, Thompson JF, Cochran AJ, et al. Final trial report of sentinel-node biopsy versus nodal observation in melanoma. N Engl J Med. 2014;370:599–609.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Thomas JM, Patocskai EJ. The argument against sentinel node biopsy for malignant melanoma: its use should be confined to patients in clinical trials. Br Med J. 2000;321:3–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Gershenwald JE, Thompson W, Mansfield PF, et al. Multi-institutional melanoma lymphatic mapping experience: the prognostic value of sentinel lymph node status in 612 stage I or II melanoma patients. J Clin Oncol. 1999;17:976–83.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Jansen L, Nieweg OE, Peterse JL, Hoefnagel CA, Olmos RA, Kroon BB. Reliability of sentinel lymph node biopsy for staging melanoma. Br J Surg. 2000;87:484–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    McMasters KM, Egger ME, Edwards MJ, et al. Final results of the Sunbelt Melanoma Trial: a multi-institutional prospective randomized phase III study evaluating the role of adjuvant high-dose interferon alfa-2b and completion lymph node dissection for patients staged by sentinel lymph node biopsy. J Clin Oncol. 2016;34:1079–86.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kirkwood JM, Strawderman MH, Ernstoff MS, Smith TJ, Borden EC, Blum RH. Interferon alfa-2b adjuvant therapy of high-risk resected cutaneous melanoma: the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Trial EST 1684. J Clin Oncol. 1996;14:7–17.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Scoggins CR, Ross MI, Reintgen DS, et al. Prospective multi-institutional study of reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for molecular staging of melanoma. J Clin Oncol. 2006;24:2849–57.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Morton DL, Thompson JF, Essner R, et al. Validation of the accuracy of intraoperative lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymphadenectomy for early-stage melanoma: a multicenter trial. Multicenter Selective Lymphadenectomy Trial Group. Ann Surg. 1999;230:453–63. discussion 63–5CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Multicenter Selective Lymphadenectomy Trial II (MSLT-II). 2006. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00297895. Accessed 18 Mar 2017
  51. 51.
    Faries MB, Thompson JF, Cochran AJ, et al. Completion dissection or observation for sentinel-node metastasis in melanoma. N Engl J Med. 2017;376:2211–22.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Cochran AJ, Morton DL, Stern S, Lana AMA, Essner R, Wen D-R. Sentinel lymph nodes show profound downregulation of antigen-presenting cells of the paracortex: implications for tumor biology and treatment. Mod Pathol. 2001;14:604–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ann Y. Chung
    • 1
  • Catalina Mosquera
    • 1
  • Jan H. Wong
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of SurgeryEast Carolina University Brody School of MedicineGreenvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations