Advertisement

Gender Dysphoria and Autism Spectrum Disorders

  • Aron Janssen
Chapter

Abstract

Individuals with autism spectrum disorders are more likely to have gender dysphoria, and individuals with gender dysphoria are more likely to have an autism spectrum disorder, and yet very little is known about the potential reasons for the overlap, and little has been published on best practice in clinical work with this unique and rewarding subset of the population. Using case-based material and a review of the current literature on gender dysphoria and autism, this chapter will provide guidelines for assessment and clinical interventions that are inclusive of the unique ways individuals with autism can experience and express their gender.

Keywords

Transgender Gender nonconforming Autism Autism spectrum disorders Intellectual disability 

References

  1. 1.
    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Huerta M, Lord C. Diagnostic evaluation of autism spectrum disorders. Pediatr Clin N Am. 2012;59(1):103–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Janssen A, Huang H, Duncan C. Gender variance among youth with autism spectrum disorders: a retrospective chart review. Transgender Health. 2016;1(1):63–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Van Schalkwyk G, Klingensmith K, Volkman F. Gender identity and autism spectrum disorders. Yale J Biol Med. 2015;88:81–3.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Strang J, Kenworthy L, Dominska A, Sokoloff J, Kenealy LE, Berl M, et al. Increased gender variance in autism spectrum disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Arch Sex Behav. 2014;43:1525–33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    de Vries A, Noens I, Cohen-Kettenis P, van Berckelaer-Onnes IA, Doreleijers TA. Autism spectrum disorders in gender dysphoric children and adolescents. J Autism Dev Disord. 2010;40:930–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Eisabbagh M, Divan G, Koh YS, Kim YS, Kauchali S, Marcín C, et al. Global prevalence of autism and other pervasive developmental disorders. Autism Res. 2012;5:160–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bejerot S, Humble MB, Gardner A. Endocrine disruptors, the increase of autism spectrum disorder and its comorbidity with gender identity disorder—a hypothetical association. Int J Androl. 2011;34(5:Pt. 2):e350.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Swan SH, Liu F, Hines M, Kruse RL, Wang C, Redmon JB, et al. Prenatal phthalate exposure and reduced masculine play in boys. Int J Androl. 2010;33:259–69.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Williams PG, Allard AM, Sears L. Case study: cross-gender preoccupations with two male children with autism. J Autism Dev Disord. 1996;26:635–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lee A, Hobson RP. On developing self-concepts: a controlled study of children and adolescents with autism. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 1998;39:1131–44.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Jacobs L, Rachlin K, Erickson-Schroth L, Janssen A. Gender dysphoria and co-occurring autism spectrum disorders: review, case examples and treatment considerations. LGBT Health. 2014;1:277–82.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, NYU Langone HealthNYU Child Study CenterNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations