The Philippine Experience in Geothermal Energy Development

  • Marnel Arnold Ratio
  • Jillian Aira Gabo-Ratio
  • Anna Leah Tabios-Hillebrecht
Part of the Lecture Notes in Energy book series (LNEN, volume 67)


Situated along the Pacific Ring of Fire, the Philippines has a total installed capacity of 1916 MW geothermal energy, which makes it one of the world’s top producers. The Philippine Government aims to increase its renewable energy capacity to an estimated 15,304 MW by 2030 comprising of 1495 MW for geothermal capacity. In order to reach its interim targets for increasing geothermal installed capacity, the government must work closely with the private resource developers to expedite permit related-processes and avoid project delays, thereby supporting timely geothermal exploration and construction activities. With decades of experience in geothermal energy development, the Philippines has learned valuable lessons from its various and unique geothermal energy projects from the lowland accessible Makiling-Banahaw geothermal complex to the socio-culturally and environmentally sensitive Mindanao geothermal complex. The past controversies and successful stakeholder resolutions have shed light on the complicated connection between geothermal energy and stakeholders particularly that of the indigenous cultural communities and indigenous people.


Philippines Geothermal energy Indigenous cultural communities Social acceptance 



The authors are grateful for the support of the Geothermal Energy Management Division—Renewable Energy Management Bureau—Department of Energy, the National Geothermal Association of the Philippines and the Energy Development Corporation.


  1. Alcaraz AP, Ogena MS (1997) Geothermal energy development—a boon to Philippine energy self-reliance efforts. Paper presented at the symposium on energy in connection with the S&T centennial celebration, 23 Oct 1997Google Scholar
  2. Aligan ME (2010) Opportunities for direct use of geothermal resources in the Bicol Region, Philippines. In: Abstracts of the World Geothermal Congress 2010, Bali, 25–29 Apr 2010Google Scholar
  3. Asian Development Bank (2016) Asian development bank and the Philippines: fact sheet. Accessed 14 Oct 2017
  4. Asian Development Bank (2017) Asian development outlook 2017 update—sustaining development through public–private partnership. Accessed 14 Oct 2017
  5. Aurelio MA (2000) Tectonics of the Philippines revisited. J Geol Soc Philippines 55:119–183Google Scholar
  6. Batac EL, Dugan V (2015) Enabling sustainable geothermal operations through social impact assessment. In: Abstracts of the World Geothermal Congress 2015, Melbourne, 19–25 Apr 2015Google Scholar
  7. Butardo-Toribio MZ, Orno JL, Dakila-Bergonia A et al. (1995) Socioeconomic analysis of the environmental impacts of the operations of Makban geothermal project, Luzon. Dalhousie University, Halifax, PhilippinesGoogle Scholar
  8. Camu MM (2015) Geothermal education: a campaign for sustainability. In: Abstracts of the World Geothermal Congress 2015, Melbourne, 19–25 Apr 2015Google Scholar
  9. Echavez JW (1997) Environmental risk assessment study: Mak-Ban geothermal complex. Masters thesis, University of the Philippines Los Banos, Laguna, Philippines, 132 ppGoogle Scholar
  10. Energy Development Corporation (2017) 2016 Performance report. Energy Development Corporation, PasigGoogle Scholar
  11. Datuin RT, Troncales AC (1986) Philippine geothermal resources: general geological setting and development. Geothermics 15(5/6):613–622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. De Jesus AC (2000) Philippine geothermal development: a successful renewable energy and a guide for new and renewable options. Paper presented at the World Energy Congress, Japan, 18 Oct 2000Google Scholar
  13. De Jesus AC (2005) Social issues raised and measures adopted in Philippine geothermal projects. In: Abstracts of the World Geothermal Congress 2005, Antalya, 24–29 Apr 2005Google Scholar
  14. De Jesus AC (2016) Environmental benefits and challenges associated with geothermal power generation. In: DiPippo R (ed) Geothermal power generation developments and innovations. Elsevier House, London, pp 477–494Google Scholar
  15. De Jesus AC, Pascual RVJ, Addawe C (2013) Harmonizing energy development corporation’s environmental and social initiatives with the Philippine environmental impact statement system. Paper presented at the First National Convention on the Philippine EIAS System, Manila, Philippines. 19–21 June 2013Google Scholar
  16. Department of Energy (2011) National renewable energy program 2011–2030. Accessed 15 Oct 2017
  17. Department of Energy (2016a) 2016 Philippine power situation report. Accessed 26 Nov 2017
  18. Department of Energy (2016b) Philippine energy plan 2016–2030.–2030/. Accessed 24 Dec 2017
  19. Department of Energy (2017) List of existing power plants. Accessed 2 Dec 2017
  20. Department of Environment and Natural Resources-Environment Management Bureau (2007) Revised procedural manual for DENR Administrative Order No. 30 Series of 2003 (Implementing Rules and Regulations of Presidential Decree No. 1586, Establishing the Philippine Environmental Impact Statement System). Accessed 18 Nov 2017
  21. Dolor FM (2006) Geothermal projects in National parks in the Philippines: the case of the Mt. Apo geothermal project. Paper presented at the workshop for decision makers on geothermal projects in Central America, San Salvador, 26 Nov–2 Dec 2006Google Scholar
  22. Fronda AD, Marasigan MC, Lazaro VS (2015) Geothermal development in the Philippines: the country update. In: Abstracts of the World Geothermal Congress 2015, Melbourne, 19–25 Apr 2015Google Scholar
  23. Halcon RM, Fronda AD, Del Rosario RA et al. (2015) Detailed resource assessment of selected low-enthalpy geothermal areas in the Philippines. In: Abstracts of the World Geothermal Congress 2015, Melbourne, 19–25 Apr 2015Google Scholar
  24. Herald Express (2017) Conduct of geothermal resource assessment backed. Accessed 14 Oct 2017
  25. International Renewable Energy Agency (2014) Renewable power generation costs in 2014. International Renewable Energy Agency, Abu DhabiCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. International Renewable Energy Agency (2017) Accelerating renewable mini-grid deployment: a study on the Philippines. International Renewable Energy Agency, Abu DhabiGoogle Scholar
  27. Karunungan V, Requejo R (2000) Update on geothermal development in the Philippines. In: Abstracts of the World Geothermal Congress 2000, Beppu-Morioka, 28 May–10 June 2000Google Scholar
  28. La Viña AGM, Kho JL, Caleda MJ (2010) Legal framework for protected areas: Philippines. International Union for Conservation of Nature, GlandGoogle Scholar
  29. National Economic and Development Authority (2017) Philippine Development Plan 2017–2022. Accessed 15 Oct 2017
  30. Ölz S, Beerepoot M (2010) Deploying renewables in Southeast Asia: trends and potentials. International Energy Agency, Energy Papers 06Google Scholar
  31. Ote LM, De Jesus AC (1995) Mt. Apo Geothermal Project: a learning experience in sustainable development. In: Abstracts of the World Geothermal Congress, Florence, 18–31 May 1995Google Scholar
  32. Padua D, Gerona P, Fajardo V (2000) Manito Lowlands: the first low-enthalpy field under exploitation in the Philippines. In: Abstracts of the World Geothermal Congress 2000, Beppu-Morioka, 28 May–10 June 2000Google Scholar
  33. Pascual RVJ (2005) Impacts of Philippine environmental regulatory policies on PNOC-EDC’s corporate environmental management initiatives. In: Abstracts of the World Geothermal Congress 2005, Antalya, 24–29 Apr 2005Google Scholar
  34. Peñarroyo FS (2012) Geothermal exploration and development after the passage of the Philippines Renewable Energy Act 2008. In: Abstracts of the 4th African rift geothermal conference, Nairobi, 21–23 November 2012Google Scholar
  35. Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (2008) PHIVOLCS volcano monitoring Accessed 20 Dec 2017
  36. Philippine Statistical Authority (2015) Highlights of the Philippine population 2015 census of population. Accessed 15 Oct 2017
  37. Philippine Statistical Authority (2017a) All regions of the Philippines posted positive economic growth in 2016. Accessed 14 Oct 2017
  38. Philippine Statistical Authority (2017b) Philippine economy grows by 6.5 percent in the second quarter; 6.4 percent in the first half of 2017. Accessed 14 Oct 2017
  39. Rangin C, Pubellier M (1990) Subduction and accretion of Philippine Sea Plate fragments along the Eurasian margin. Tectonics of Circum-Pacific continental margins 139–164Google Scholar
  40. Ratio MAR, Fujimitsu Y (2013) Challenges of geothermal energy development in the Philippines: from social and political viewpoints. In: Abstracts of the international symposium on earth science and technology 2013, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, 3–4 Dec 2013Google Scholar
  41. Ratio MAR, Fujimitsu Y, Nishijima J et al. (2014) Perceived knowledge and social acceptance of geothermal energy of the local community in Makiling-Banahaw geothermal complex. In: Abstracts of the grand renewable energy 2014—international conference and exhibition, Tokyo. 27 July–1 Aug 2014Google Scholar
  42. Sabularse RC (2008) Geothermal energy in the Philippines. Paper presented at the workshop on geothermal energy: resources and technology for a sustainable development, Trieste, 10–12 December 2008Google Scholar
  43. Sussman D, Javellana SP, Benavidez PJ (1993) Geothermal energy development in the Philippines: an overview. Geothermics 22(5/6):353–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Taylor B, Hayes DE (1980) The tectonic evolution of the South China Basin. In: Hayes DE (ed) The tectonic and geologic evolution of Southeast Asian Seas and Islands. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, pp 89–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Tsutsumi H, Perez JS (2013) Large-scale active fault map of the Philippine fault based on aerial photograph and interpretation. Active Fault Res 39:29–37Google Scholar
  46. Tuyor JB, Bautista JG, Shah JJ et al. (2007) The Philippine environmental impact statement system: framework, implementation, performance and challenges. Discussion papers, East Asia and Pacific Region. Rural Development, Natural Resources and Environment Sector. World Bank, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  47. Ulgado AF, Gular MTM (2005) Status of direct use of geothermal energy in the Philippines. In: Abstracts of the World Geothermal Congress 2005, Antalya, 24–29 Apr 2005Google Scholar
  48. Vasquez NC, Javellana SP (1997) Present and future geothermal developments in the Philippines. In: Abstracts of new energy and industrial technology development organization international geothermal symposium, Sendai, 11–12 Mar 1997Google Scholar
  49. World Bank (2005) Multistakeholder participation. Handbook for the application of the enhanced environmental performance monitoring and audit system of the Philippine environmental impact assessment system, vol 2. World Bank, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  50. World Energy Council (2007) Survey of energy resources 2007. World Energy Council, LondonGoogle Scholar
  51. World Energy Council (2016) World energy resources: geothermal 2016. World Energy Council, LondonGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marnel Arnold Ratio
    • 1
  • Jillian Aira Gabo-Ratio
    • 2
  • Anna Leah Tabios-Hillebrecht
    • 3
  1. 1.Laboratory of Geothermics, Department of Earth Resources EngineeringGraduate School of Engineering, Kyushu UniversityFukuokaJapan
  2. 2.Rushurgent Working Group, National Institute of Geological SciencesUniversity of the PhilippinesQuezon CityPhilippines
  3. 3.Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer LLPMunichGermany

Personalised recommendations