Fundamental Facets of Somatic Embryogenesis and Its Applications for Advancement of Peanut Biotechnology

  • Suprabuddha Kundu
  • Saikat GantaitEmail author


Peanut (Arachis hypogaea Linn.) is one of the most vital crops providing predominant supply of protein, vitamins and fats, along with other necessary nutrients. Various factors, responsible for induction, maintenance, multiplication of the embryogenic cultures, as well as maturation and conversion of somatic embryos (SEs) into complete plants have been discussed in this review. In order to find the present trends and thriving methodologies for the development of somatic embryogenesis, a lot of emphasis has been given to the economically important species. It has been reported that from young meristematic tissues like immature embryos and leaves of legumes, SE can be induced comparatively in a easier way. However, there are multiple constraints that limit the usage of somatic embryogenesis-based biotechnological applications on legumes, such as low rate of embryo formation, reduced germination, inadequate conversion into plantlets and somaclonal variation. These hindrances, nonetheless, may significantly be diminished in future, since the effective plant growth regulators with specific morphogenic targets are becoming available for experimental purposes. Existing reports reveal that somatic embryogenic systems, having superior germination and regeneration ability shall have direct usage in large-scale propagation and several other crop improvement features. With increasing knowledge of different morphogenic processes, involving differentiation of zygotic embryos, it is possible that improvement of this technology having practical efficacy may be applicable for the important peanut genotypes.


Callus Genetic transformation Organogenesis Peanut Somatic embryo 



2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid


indole-3-acetic acid


Gamborg’s medium






Bulbil-like body




Gibberellin A3


indole-3-butyric acid




Murashige and Skoog


Mature zygotic embryo-derived leaflet


α-naphthalene acetic acid


Pre-embryogenic determined cells


Plant growth regulator


Somatic embryo


N-phenyl-N′-(1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-yl) urea or thidiazuron


4-hydroxy-3-methyl-terms-2-butenyl aminopurine



Authors acknowledge the e-library assistance from the Directorate of Research, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Kalyani, West Bengal, India. We further are thankful to the anonymous reviewers and the editor of this chapter for their critical comments and suggestions on the manuscript.

Conflict of Interest

The authors of this article declare that there is no conflict of interest and no financial gain from it.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Faculty of AgricultureBidhan Chandra Krishi ViswavidyalayaMohanpur, NadiaIndia
  2. 2.All India Coordinated Research Project on GroundnutBidhan Chandra Krishi ViswavidyalayaKalyani, NadiaIndia
  3. 3.Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Faculty of AgricultureBidhan Chandra Krishi ViswavidyalayaMohanpur, NadiaIndia

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