Postoperative complications of migraine surgery are infrequent and predominantly of minor nature. The procedures, in contrast, should not be seen as minor surgery. Although they are mostly performed on an outpatient basis, an undisturbed recovery phase is of critical importance to ensure a successful outcome. Patients may experience relapsing migraine due to the emergence of previously unidentified trigger sites. The screening of a variety of potentially clinically relevant pain localizations can minimize the delayed activation of secondary sites. Migraine patients should be advised about the possible development of other, not yet targeted sites. Possible causes for surgery failure include the unrestrained use of triptans, the unnoticed coexistence of cervicogenic headache, and the incomplete surgical deactivation of trigger sites.