The Application of a Modified Sol-Gel Silica Coating for the Protection of Corroded Roman Soda-Lime-Silica Glass: An Experimental and Analytical Study

  • Abeer Al Bawab
  • Reema Al-Omari
  • Ramadan Abd-Allah
  • Ayat Bozeya
  • Rund A. Abu-Zurayk
  • Fadwa Odeh


A new approach for consolidation of deteriorated and de-vitrificated surface of soda-lime-silica glass artifacts was studied. Soda-lime-silica glass samples were collected from Beit Ras archaeological site/northern Jordan (Middle East). Consolidant solution of sol-gel dispersion was prepared to act as consolidant coating material for the desired artifacts. The consolidant material was prepared from ethanol/TEOS/H2O (HCl as a catalyst) using the mapping for the ternary phase diagram (TPD) with a 3% Paraloid B-72 in acetone as a fixed copolymer.

A series of laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficiency of the prepared sol-gel silica coating. Experiments included aging, refractive index, corrosion, weight loss, and density tests. Treated soda-lime-silica glass artifacts were scrutinized utilizing scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray fluorescent (XRF). The results of laboratory experiments revealed or afforded that the adapted colloidal sol-gel camouflage the glass artifact surface and intensify it. No changes in the soda-lime-silica glass mineralogical composition were taped. The treated glass artifacts were cataloged to be corrosion resistant, which in turn led to the decrease of surface devitrification process, decreasing the weight loss, the changes in the refractive indices, and density values of the glass artifacts. As a result, the prepared sol-gel silica was listed to be effective in the inhibition of soda-lime artifact corrosion process.


Soda glass Sol-gel silica Consolidation Ternary phase diagram (TPD) Paraloid B-72 Devitrification Glass deterioration Glass corrosion 



The authors would hereby like to acknowledge the general directorates of laboratories of XRF, XRD, and SEM at the University of Jordan, the Deanship of Academic Research of the University of Jordan for funding this research, and Hamdi Mango Center for Scientific Research for providing a very suitable and well-equipped working environment, where all the experiment took place in its laboratories.


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abeer Al Bawab
    • 1
    • 2
  • Reema Al-Omari
    • 1
  • Ramadan Abd-Allah
    • 3
  • Ayat Bozeya
    • 4
  • Rund A. Abu-Zurayk
    • 4
  • Fadwa Odeh
    • 1
  1. 1.Chemistry Department, Faculty of ScienceThe University of JordanAmmanJordan
  2. 2.Hamdi Mango Center for Scientific ResearchThe University of JordanAmmanJordan
  3. 3.Conservation Department, Faculty of ArchaeologyCairo UniversityGizaEgypt
  4. 4.Hamdi Mango Center for Scientific Research (HMCSR)The University of JordanAmmanJordan

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