Menopause and Ageing

  • Marta Caretto
  • Andrea Giannini
  • Tommaso Simoncini
  • Andrea R. Genazzani
Part of the Reproductive Medicine for Clinicians book series (REMECL, volume 1)


The decline in the reproductive capacity of women in the late fourth to fifth decade of life is accompanied by diverse sequelae, including vasomotor symptoms, an increased risk of osteoporosis, psychogenic disturbance and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. Attempts to ameliorate losses in oestrogen through hormone replacement therapy (HRT) have, however, courted significant controversy relating both to increased risks of malignancy and vascular events, thereby standing as an exemplar for the difficulty in managing hormone balance during ageing. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) represents the most abundant sex steroid in plasma in men and women, but its serum concentration goes down to 10–20% of its maximum level by around the age of 70 years. Evidence suggest that lower levels of are associated with cardiovascular, cognitive and sexual impairment in women. Further aspects need to be better investigated, before drawing definitive conclusions on DHEA replacement therapy.


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Copyright information

© IAHR (International Academy of Human Reproduction) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marta Caretto
    • 1
  • Andrea Giannini
    • 1
  • Tommaso Simoncini
    • 2
  • Andrea R. Genazzani
    • 3
  1. 1.Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Department of Experimental and Clinical MedicineUniversity of PisaPisaItaly
  2. 2.Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Department of Clinical and Experimental MedicineUniversity of PisaPisaItaly
  3. 3.International Society of Gynecological EndocrinologyPisaItaly

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