Laws and Remedies in Europe

  • Ngianga-Bakwin Kandala
  • Paul Nzinga Komba


With the development of migration flows in the countries of sub-Saharan Africa to OECD countries, FGM has become a legal, social and health problem in European countries. The WHO estimates that 5% of women and girls mutilated from North Africa migrate to Western Countries. This has been the case in Europe for years since the presence of mutilated women is related to the feminisation of migration from Africa, which began in the late 1970s. Albeit not all European countries are affected to the same extent, parliament nevertheless seized the matter in the early 2000s: a first resolution was passed in 2001, condemning female genital mutilation, and a second resolution on these practices in the European Union reinforced the decision in 2009. The prevalence of FGM in Europe remains well known: a resolution of the European Parliament of 24 March 2009 reported that 500,000 women in Europe had undergone FGM and that each year 180,000 migrant women are at risk of such practices, but without specifying the source of these figures. Several European countries have, however, started to investigate this question to understand better the extent of services their Medicines Sans Frontiers have to supply or deal with.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ngianga-Bakwin Kandala
    • 1
  • Paul Nzinga Komba
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Mathematics Physics and Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and EnvironmentNorthumbria UniversityNewcastle upon TyneUK
  2. 2.Wolfson CollegeCambridgeUK

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