Health Consequences of FGM/C

  • Ngianga-Bakwin Kandala
  • Paul Nzinga Komba


Based on the evidence of prevalence of FGM/C presented in the preceding chapters, we now proceed to the questions of (1) health consequences and risks posed by the FGM/C condition as well as (2) the medical interventions, which can benefit patients who have been subjected to this condition. In order to deal with these issues, we begin by gathering and analysing the relevant set of knowledge of the FGM/C and its typologies. Such knowledge, we suggest, must be coupled with a sound understanding of the anatomy and physiological aspects and procedures. Such a combination of knowledge may assist those health professionals in countries of FGM/C prevalence (described in the preceding chapters) to become competently involved in the provision of care and support for their patients.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ngianga-Bakwin Kandala
    • 1
  • Paul Nzinga Komba
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Mathematics Physics and Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and EnvironmentNorthumbria UniversityNewcastle upon TyneUK
  2. 2.Wolfson CollegeCambridgeUK

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