Biostatistics in Cardiovascular Research with Emphasis on Sex-Related Aspects
Research on sex differences related to cardiovascular dysfunction has become a topic of interest in the last decade. Although scientific research has been carried out since ancient times, we still may struggle with performing scientific research in the best way to achieve the highest quality data and solid conclusions. In this chapter, every step of scientific research is explained: from formulating the research question and hypotheses to analyzing the collected data to interpreting and reporting the results. Several fundamental biostatistical techniques—such as the independent samples t-test, the chi-square test, the log-rank test, and different regression models—are presented. In addition, methods that can deal with variables influencing the association of interest are discussed. All examples are focused on investigating sex differences in cardiac outcomes, but this chapter is written in such a way that it easily translates to other fields of medical research on every disease or health state.
KeywordsIndependent samples t-test Chi-square test Log-rank test Regression models Confounding Effect modification
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