Sex Differences in Epidemiology of Cardiac and Vascular Disease

  • Tatiana KuznetsovaEmail author
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1065)


In spite of a remarkable decline in death rates from cardiovascular disease (CVD) observed over the last decades, CVD still remains the leading cause of mortality in both men and women worldwide. Overall the age-adjusted CVD mortality and morbidity rates are highest in men than in women. However, the risk of CVD in women should not be underestimated given that approximately one of two women in developed countries will die of mostly preventable heart diseases or stroke. Although men and women share the same cardiovascular risk factors, there are substantial sex differences in the first manifestation and clinical presentation of CVD. In this part of the chapter, we will discuss the recent epidemiological data on sex discrepancies in the prevalence and burden of different CVDs.


Cardiovascular disease Coronary heart disease Stroke Peripheral arterial disease Mortality Morbidity Microcirculatory dysfunction Sex differences Misdiagnosis Risk profile 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Research Unit Hypertension and Cardiovascular Epidemiology, KU Leuven Department of Cardiovascular SciencesUniversity of LeuvenLeuvenBelgium

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