Cardiac Rehabilitation for Women

  • Vera BittnerEmail author
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1065)


Cardiac rehabilitation provides comprehensive secondary prevention services and improves outcomes among patients with coronary heart disease, systolic heart failure, and other cardiac rehabilitation indications. Worldwide, cardiac rehabilitation services are underutilized. Underutilization is more common among women than in men. This chapter reviews barriers to referral, enrollment, and adherence among women and potential interventions to improve women’s participation in cardiac rehabilitation. Gender similarities and differences in clinical, behavioral, and health outcomes of cardiac rehabilitation are addressed, and gaps in the evidence base are discussed, pointing to areas of future research.


Cardiac rehabilitation Secondary prevention Coronary heart disease Heart failure Cardio-oncology Gender gap Coronary artery dissection 


Sources of Funding



Dr. Bittner has research support from Amgen, Astra Zeneca, Bayer Healthcare, Esperion, and Sanofi.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Cardiovascular DiseaseUniversity of Alabama at BirminghamBirminghamUSA

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