Heart Transplantation Survival and Sex-Related Differences

  • Martina Previato
  • Elena OstoEmail author
  • Peter L. M. Kerkhof
  • Gareth Parry
  • Francesco TonaEmail author
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1065)


Orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT) is the “gold standard” treatment for patients with end-stage heart failure, with approximately 5000 transplants performed each year worldwide. Heart transplantation survival rates have progressively improved at all time points, despite an increase in donor and recipient age and comorbidity and greater recipient urgency; according to the registry of the International Society of Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT), the median survival of patients posttransplantation is currently 12.2 years.

Long-term survival is sub-optimal, and outcomes after OHT remain constrained by the development of acute rejection and cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV). Moreover, donor organs are in short supply, making optimal organ utilization an ongoing priority. For these reasons, substantial interest continues to exist in identifying factors portending increased survival and improved organ utilization.


Cardiac transplantation Allograft vasculopathy Sex mismatch Donor organ Microvasculopathy Premenopausal female donor Posttransplant mortality Immunological difference Transfusion history United Network for Organ Sharing Review 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Cardiac, Thoracic and Vascular SciencesUniversity of PadovaPadovaItaly
  2. 2.Laboratory of Translational Nutrition BiologyFederal Institute of Technology Zurich ETHZZurichSwitzerland
  3. 3.Center for Molecular CardiologyUniversity of ZurichZurichSwitzerland
  4. 4.University Heart Center, CardiologyUniversity Hospital ZurichZurichSwitzerland
  5. 5.Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam Cardiovascular SciencesVU University Medical CenterAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  6. 6.Department of Cardiopulmonary TransplantationFreeman HospitalNewcastle upon TyneUK

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