Heart Function Analysis in Cardiac Patients with Focus on Sex-Specific Aspects

  • Peter L. M. KerkhofEmail author
  • Richard A. Peace
  • Guy R. Heyndrickx
  • Lilian J. Meijboom
  • Ralf W. Sprengers
  • Neal Handly
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1065)


Cardiac function is best described by investigating the pressure-volume relationships. This information permits description in terms of the ventricular volume regulation graph (VRG), estimation of systolic elastance, evaluation of lusitropic properties, and assessment of ventriculo-arterial coupling. Current techniques yield noninvasive determination of cardiac compartmental volumes, along with systolic/diastolic arterial pressure, while ventricular end-diastolic pressure can be inferred from an echocardiography-based surrogate measure. Ventricular volume is known to vary with age, as well as to be affected by intrinsic cardiac disease and abnormalities of the vascular system. Moreover, 35 years ago it has been shown in healthy adults that left ventricular volume is significantly smaller in women compared to men. This important observation has serious implications for several metrics which are routinely used in clinical practice, e.g., ejection fraction. The remarkable difference between ventricular size in men and women is also a powerful starting point for the study of aging and the investigation of interventions such as exercise. In this review we evaluate sex-specific characteristics of the VRG and the implications for various cardiac patient populations, during basal conditions and intervention such as exercise.


Volume regulation graph Ventricular function Ejection fraction Strain analysis Torsion Remodeling Ventricular geometry Cardiophysiology Exercise and cardiac pump Ventricular mass Aging and the heart Cardiac dimensions Right ventricle LAVI Sex-specific analysis Heart failure Diabetes mellitus Review 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam Cardiovascular SciencesVU University Medical CenterAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of Nuclear Medicine, Royal Victoria InfirmaryThe Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation TrustNewcastle upon TyneUK
  3. 3.Cardiovascular Center, Onze-Lieve-Vrouw ClinicAalstBelgium
  4. 4.Department of Radiology & Nuclear MedicineVU University Medical CenterAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  5. 5.Department of Emergency MedicineDrexel University College of MedicinePhiladelphiaUSA

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