The Heart as a Psychoneuroendocrine and Immunoregulatory Organ

  • Carlo Dal Lin
  • Francesco Tona
  • Elena OstoEmail author
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1065)


The heart can be viewed not just as muscle pump but also as an important checkpoint for a complex network of nervous, endocrine, and immune signals. The heart is able to process neurological signals independently from the brain and to crosstalk with the endocrine and immune systems. The heart communicates with the psyche through the neuro-endocrine-immune system in a highly integrated way, in order to maintain the homeostasis of the whole body with peculiarities specific to males and females.


Alarmin Beta-blocker Brain-heart axis Cardiokine Emotion Heart-brain interaction Mental stress Psychic factors in heart disease Psychosocial stress Neuroendocrine regulation Immunoregulatory function Pattern recognition receptor Toll-like receptor Sex-specific analysis Review 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Cardiac, Thoracic and Vascular SciencesUniversity of PadovaPadovaItaly
  2. 2.Laboratory of Translational Nutrition BiologyFederal Institute of Technology Zurich ETHZZurichSwitzerland
  3. 3.Center for Molecular CardiologyUniversity of Zurich and University Heart Center, Cardiology, University Hospital ZurichZurichSwitzerland

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