Women and Men in the History of Western Cardiology: Some Notes on Their Position as Patients, Role as Investigational Study Subjects, and Impact as Professionals

  • Peter L. M. KerkhofEmail author
  • Elena Osto
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1065)


Nowadays, it is generally appreciated that studies in the medical field should not only include sex-related aspects but also consider age. In the past, taking the era of Hippocrates as a starting point for the Western medical sciences, such aspects were less urgent and barely relevant. However, considering such details during daily life became increasingly important as the traditional roles of men and women in society and household converged. In the Western world, this fundamental transition process started recently and is advancing at an accelerated pace. Research about the role of women has also evolved, starting from plain history about the lives of women to a description of the relation between men and women, resulting in the gender concept. The present survey highlights a historical selection of observations referring to the impact of men and women on the medical sciences, as patient, study object, and professional. Whenever relevant, focus will be on the field of cardiovascular investigations as documented in the Western world. Rather than being exhaustive, we focus on a few remarkable icons, including Trota of Salerno, Hildegard von Bingen, and Miguel Serveto.


History of cardiology Heart research Heart as symbol Merit Ptah Trota of Salerno Hildegard von Bingen Miguel Serveto Theresa of Avila Dario Maestrini Bloodletting Midwifery Bicycle face Anorexia religiosa Lady’s heart Soldiers heart E-patient Pulsology Epistotherapy Cardiomythology 


  1. 1.
    Abdel-Halim RE. Contributions of Ibn Al-Nafis (1210–1288 AD) to the progress of medicine and urology. A study and translations from his medical works. Saudi Med J. 2008;29:13–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Abdel-Halim RE. The missing link in the history of circulation. Neonatology. 2011;99(4):311.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Adkins AWH. Homeric Gods and the values of Homeric society. J Hellenic Stud. 1972;92:1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Akmal M, Zulkifle M, Ansari A. Ibn Nafis – a forgotten genius in the discovery of pulmonary blood circulation. Heart Views. 2010;11:26–30.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Altschule MD. Essays on the rise and decline of bedside medicine. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger; 1989.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Altschule MD. Lady’s heart. Chest. 1986;89:751.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Androutsos G, Karamanou M, Stefanadis C. The contribution of Alexandrian physicians to cardiology. Hell J Cardiol. 2013;54:15–7.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bachofen JJ. Das Mutterrecht: eine Untersuchung über die Gynaikokratie der alten Welt nach ihrer religiösen und rechtlichen Natur. Stuttgart: Verlag von Krais und Hoffmann; 1861.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bainton RH. Hunted heretic: the life and death of Michael Servetus, 1511–1553. Providence: Blackstone Editions; 2005.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    de Balzac H. The physiology of marriage. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press; 1997.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Barnard C, Pepper CB. One life. New York: Macmillan; 1969.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bedford DE. The ancient art of feeling the pulse. Br Heart J. 1951;13:423–37.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Benton JF. Trotula, women’s problems, and the professionalization of medicine in the Middle Ages. Bull Hist Med. 1985;59(1):30–53.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bigelow WG, Callaghan JC, Hopps JA. General hypothermia for experimental intracardiac surgery. The use of electrophrenic respirations, an artificial pacemaker for cardiac standstill and the radio-frequency rewarming in general hypothermia. Ann Surg. 1950;132:531–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bishop PJ. A list of papers etc., on Leopold Auenbrugger (1722–1809) and the history of percussion. Med Hist. 1961;5:192–6.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Blok J, Mason P. Sexual asymmetry; studies in ancient society. Amsterdam: JC Gieben; 1987.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Blömer H. When cardiology became a separate matter. Eur J Med Res. 2006;27:415–7.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bollmann S. Women who write. New York: Merrell Publishers; 2007.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Børresen KE, Vogt K. Women’s studies of the Christian and Islamic traditions. Ancient, medieval and renaissance foremothers. New York: Springer; 1993.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Boston Women’s Health Book Collective Staff. Our bodies, a book by and for women. Boston: Simon and Schuster Trade; 1976.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Boyack KW, Klavans R, Sorensen AA, Ioannidis JP. A list of highly influential biomedical researchers, 1996–2011. Eur J Clin Investig. 2013;43:1339–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bröer R. Blutkreislauf und Dreieinigkeit Medizinischer Antitrinitarismus von Michael Servet (1511–1553) bis Giorgio Biandrata (1515–1588). Ber Wiss. 2006;29:21–37.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bull M. The mirror of the gods; how renaissance artists rediscovered the pagan gods. New York: Oxford University Press; 2005.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Buonanno C, Arbustini E, Rossi L, Dander B, Vassanelli C, Paris B, Poppi A. Left ventricular function in men and women. Another difference between sexes. Eur Heart J. 1982;3:525–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Buonanno C. The female left ventricle: a pathophysiological entity? Int J Cardiol. 1983;4:382–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Burchell HB. A centennial note on Waller and the first human electrocardiogram. Am J Cardiol. 1987;59:979–83.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Casanova G. Histoire de ma vie jusqu’à l’an. 1797 (published posthumously in an expurgated version).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Casadevall A, Steen RG, Fang FC. Sources of error in the retracted scientific literature. FASEB J. 2014;28:3847–55.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Cattermole GN. Michael Servetus: physician, Socinian and victim. R Soc Med. 1997;90:640–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Cattermole GN. Hero and heretic: William Osler’s interest in Michael Servetus. J Med Biogr. 2000;8:187–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Cattermole GN. Al-Nafis and Servetus. Saudi Med J. 2008;29:1359.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Chamsi-Pasha MA, Chamsi-Pasha H. Avicenna’s contribution to cardiology. Avicenna J Med. 2014;4:9–12.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Chardack WM, Gage AA, Greatbatch W. A transistorized, self-contained, implantable pacemaker for the long-term correction of complete heart block. Surgery. 1960;48:643–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Cohen H. The germ of an idea or what put Harvey on the scent? J Hist Med Allied Sci. 1957;12:102–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Cohn PF, Cohn JK. Fighting the silent killer. Wellesley: A.K. Peters Ltd; 1993.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Cope Z. John Shaw Billings, Florence Nightingale and the Johns Hopkins Hospital. Med Hist. 1957;1:367–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Cousins N. Anatomy of an illness as perceived by the patient: reflections on healing and regeneration. New York: WW Norton and Company Inc.; 1979.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Cule J. The timechart history of medicine. Hertfordshire: Worth Press Ltd; 1999.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Davis GP, Park E. The heart; the living pump. New York: Torstar Books Inc.; 1984.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    De Moor T, van Zanden JL. Vrouwen en de geboorte van het kapitalisme in West-Europa. Amsterdam: Boom; 2006.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Dequeker J. Bij de dokter; beroemdheden en hun ziektes. Leuven: Davidsfonds Uitgeverij; 2011.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Deruyttere M. Markante vrouwen in de geneeskunst. Antwerpen: VBK – Houtekiet; 2015.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Dossey L. Space, time and medicine. Boulder: Shambhala Publications Inc.; 1982.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Drucker CB. Ambroise Paré and the birth of the gentle art of surgery. Yale J Biol Med. 2008;81:199–202.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Duby G, Perrot M. Storia delle donne in occidente: L’Antichità. Rome: Editori Laterza; 1990.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Dunn PM. Louise Bourgeois (1563–1636): royal midwife of France. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2004a;89:F185–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Dunn PM. Catherina Schrader (1656–1746): the memoirs of a Friesian midwife. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2004b;89:F560–2.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Dunn PM. Dr Helen Taussig (1898–1986): pioneering American pediatric cardiologist. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2008;93:F74–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Dunn RR. The man who touched his own heart. New York: Little, Brown and Company; 2015.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Dzielska M. Hypatia of Alexandria. Boston: Harvard University Press; 1996.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Ehrenreich B, English D. Witches, midwives, and nurses. New York: The Feminist Press; 1973.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Ellis C. Epistotherapy. Br Med J. 1998;299:1230.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Engel GL. Sudden and rapid death during psychological stress. Ann Int Med. 1971;74:771–82.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Ferry G. Inspirational women in medicine. Lancet. 2017;390:1825.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Ferry G. Medical periodicals: mining the past. The Lancet. 2015;385(9987):2569–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Forssmann W. Experiments on myself. Memoirs of a surgeon in Germany. New York: St. Martin’s Press; 1974.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Foucault J. The birth of the clinic. New York: Vintage books; 1975.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Foxhall L. Studying gender in classical antiquity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Garrison FH. An introduction to the history of medicine. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Co; 1913.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Gedeon A. Science and technology in medicine. New York: Springer; 2006.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Gerchow J von, Marti S. Malereien, Versorgungsanstalten und Frauenbewegungen. In: Krone und Schleier. München: Hirmer Verlag GmbH; 2005.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Ghosh SK. Caspar Bauhin (1560–1624): Swiss anatomist and reformer of anatomical nomenclature. Ital J Anat Embryol. 2016;121:159–64.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Gibbon JH Jr. The development of the heart-lung apparatus. Am J Surg. 1978;135:608–19.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Godwin J. Robert Fludd. Grand Rapids: Phanes Press; 1979.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Grafton A, Most GW, Settis S. The classical tradition. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press; 2010.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Green MH, editor. The ‘Trotula’: a medieval compendium of women’s medicine. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press; 2001.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Greenstone G. The history of bloodletting. BCMJ. 2010;52:12–4.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Haak HL, Horstmanshoff HFJ. The anamnesis in antiquity; medical questions by Rufus Ephesius (1st to 2nd century AD). Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2006;150:2825–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Haak HL. Rufus Ephesius – Medicus gratiosus (PhD dissertation). Leiden: Leiden University Press; 2013.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Hajnal J. European marriage in perspective, in Glass DV and Eversley DEC: population in history. London: Edward Arnold Ltd; 1965.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Hall T. History of medicine. London: Hodder & Sloughton Ltd; 2013.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Heggie V. A century of cardiomythology: exercise and the heart c.1880–1980. Soc Hist Med. 2010;23:280–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Holman SR. On Phoenix and eunuchs: sources for Meletius the Monk’s anatomy of gender. J Early Christ Stud. 2008;16:79–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Horstmanshoff HFJ. The ancient physician craftsman or scientist? J Hist Med Allied Sci. 1990;45(2):176–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Howell JD. “Soldier’s heart”: the redefinition of heart disease and specialty formation in early twentieth-century Great Britain. Med Hist Suppl. 1985;5:34–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Huisman T. The finger of god; anatomical practice in 17th century Leiden. Leyden: Primavera Press; 2009.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Hurd-Mead KC. A history of women in medicine, from the earliest of times to the beginning of the nineteenth century. Haddam: The Haddam Press; 1938.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Huxley VH. Sex and the cardiovascular system: the intriguing tale of how women and men regulate cardiovascular function differently. Adv Physiol Educ. 2007;31:17–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Huxley VH, Kemp SS. Sex-specific characteristics of the microcirculation. In: Kerkhof PLM, Miller VM, editors. Sex-specific analysis of cardiovascular function. Cham: Springer; 2018. p. 307–28.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Hurst JW. The Canterbury tales and cardiology. Circulation. 1982;65:4–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Jarvis P, Tarbell JM, Frangos JA. An in vitro evaluation of an artificial heart. ASAIO Trans. 1991;37(1):27–32.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Jetter D. Geschichte der Medizin. Stuttgart: Georg Thieme Verlag; 1992.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Joy M. Harvey, Pasteur, and the truth. Am J Med. 1986;80:917–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Kaneoke Y, Donishi T, Iwahara A, Shimokawa T. Severity of premenstrual symptoms predicted by second to fourth digit ratio. Front Med (Lausanne). 2017;4:144. eCollection 2017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Karamanou M, Stefanadis C, Tsoucalas G, Laios K, Androutsos G. Galen’s (130–201 AD) conceptions of the heart. Hell J Cardiol. 2015;56:197–200.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Kästner I. Das Leipziger Karl-Sudhoff-Institut und das Fach Geschichte der Medizin in der DDR. Med J. 2014;49(1–2):118–58.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Kerridge IH, Lowe M. Bloodletting: the story of a therapeutic technique. Med J Aust. 1995;163:631–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Khalil R, Moustafa AA, Moftah MZ, Karim AA. How knowledge of ancient Egyptian women can influence today’s gender role: does history matter in gender psychology? Front Psychol. 2016;7:2053. Scholar
  89. 89.
    King EG, Oransky I, Sachs TE et al. Analysis of retracted articles in the surgical literature. Am J Surg. 2017. pii: S0002-9610(17)31228-X.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Kleiber M. The fire of life. 2nd ed. New York: Wiley; 1975.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Kondo T, Zákány J, Innis JW, Duboule D. Of fingers, toes, and penises. Nature. 1997;390(6655):29.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Legato M, editor. Principles of gender-specific medicine. 2nd ed. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 2010.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Lindeboom GA. Inleiding tot de Geschiedenis der Geneeskunde. 3rd ed. Amsterdam: Rodopi; 1979.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Lyons AS, Petrucelli RJ. Medicine, an illustrated history. New York: Harry N. Abrams Inc.; 1987.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Manning J. The finger book. London: Faber & Faber Ltd; 2007.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Margalit Y. The Jewish family – between family law and contract law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2017.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Martins e Silva J. From the discovery of the circulation of the blood to the first steps in hemorheology: part 1. Rev Port Cardiol. 2009;28:1245–68.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Martins e Silva J. Medicine in ancient Mesopotamia – part 2. Acta Medica Port. 2010;23:125–40.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Marx JL, Kolata GB. Combating the #1 killer; the SCIENCE report on heart research. Washington, DC: AAAS; 1978.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Masic I. On occasion of 800th anniversary of birth of Ibn al-Nafis – discoverer of cardiac and pulmonary circulation. Med Arh. 2010;64:309–13.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Mazzoni M. Dario Maestrini e la legge del cuore Storia di un mancato Premio Nobel. Notizie dalla Delfico. 2005:1–2.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    McKellar S. Clinical firsts – Christiaan Barnard’s heart transplantations. N Engl J Med. 2017;377:2211–3.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    McNamara JAK. Sisters in arms – Catholic nuns through two millennia. Boston: Harvard University Press; 1998.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Mesquita ET, de Decco Marchese L, Warol Dias D, Brasil Barbeito A, Costa Gomes J, Soares Muradas MC, et al. Nobel Prizes: contributions to cardiology. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2015;105:188–96.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Meyerhof M. La découverte de la circulation pulmonaire par Ibn al-Nafis, médecin arabe du Caire (XIIIe siècle). Bull l’Institut d’Egypte (Cairo). 1934;16:33–46.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    More ES, Fee E, Parry M (Eds). Women physicians and the cultures of medicine. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press; 2008.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Morens DM. Death of a president. N Engl J Med. 1999;341:1845–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Murray C. Human accomplishments – the pursuit of excellence in the arts and sciences, 800 BC to 1950. New York: Harper Collins Publishers Inc.; 2003.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Niklas KJ, Kutschera U. Kleiber’s Law: how the fire of life ignited debate, fueled theory, and neglected plants as model organisms. Plant Signal Behav. 2015;10(7):e1036216.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Nussbaum M. The fragility of goodness. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1986.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Onfray M. Féeries anatomiques: Généalogie du corps faustien. Paris: Editions Grasset & Fasquelle; 2003.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Pernoud R. Hildegarde de Bingen. Conscience inspirée du XIIe siècle. Monaco: Editions du Rocher; 1995.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Ovid. Metamorphoses. Translated by FJ Miller. Revised by G. P. Goold. Loeb Classical Library 42. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press; 1916.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Pomeroy SB. Goddesses, whores, wives, and slaves: women in classical antiquity. 2nd ed. London: Pimlico; 1994.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Porzionato A, Macchi V, Stecco C, Parenti A, De Caro R. The anatomical school of Padua. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2012;295:902–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Preuss J. Biblisch Talmudische Medizin. Berlin: Karger; 1911.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Putscher M. Geschichte der medizinischen Abbilding. Muenchen: Heinz Moos Verlag; 1972.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Randall WC, editor. Neural regulation of the heart. New York: Oxford University Press; 1977.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Reiser SJ. Medicine and the reign of technology. London: Cambridge University Press; 1978.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Rutkow I. Seeking the cure: a history of medicine in America. New York: Scribner; 2010.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Ryan TJ. The coronary angiogram and its seminal contributions to cardiovascular medicine over five decades. Circulation. 2002;106(6):752.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Saelemaekers M. The lives of 1001 women, Digitaal Vrouwenlexicon van Nederland, Royal Dutch Academy of Sciences. Huygens Resources. 2017.,%20Trijn. Accessed 30 Oct 2017.
  123. 123.
    Scott JW. Gender: a useful category of historical analysis. Am Hist Rev. 1986;91:1053–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Severinghaus JW. Eight sages over five centuries share oxygen’s discovery. Adv Physiol Educ. 2016a;40:370–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Severinghaus JW. The most important discovery of science. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2016b;876:1–16. Scholar
  126. 126.
    Shackelford J. William Harvey and the mechanics of the heart. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2003.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Sherry CJ. Animal rights: A reference handbook. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO; 1994.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Siddiqui MA, Mehta NJ, Khan IA. Paracelsus: the Hippocrates of the renaissance. J Med Biogr. 2003;11:78–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Snellen HA. History of cardiology. Rotterdam: Donker Academic Publications; 1984.Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Spivey N, Squire M. Panorama of the classical world: London, Thames & Hudson Ltd; 2004.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Stefanadis C, Karamanou M, Androutsos G, Servetus M. (1511–1553) and the discovery of pulmonary circulation. Hell J Cardiol. 2009;50:373–8.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Tallis R. Michelangelo’s finger. London: Atlantic Books; 2010.Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Taussig HB. Congenital malformations of the heart. 2nd ed. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press; 1960.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Tavris C, Wade C. The longest war: sex differences in perspective. New York: CG Thomas; 1984.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Trumble A. The finger – a handbook. London: Yale University Press; 2010.Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Tsoucalas G, Sgantzos M. The pulmonary circulation, it all started in the Hippocratic era. Eur Heart J. 2017;38:851.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Vinken PJ. The shape of the heart. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science; 2000. ISBN: 9780444829870.Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    West JB. Ibn al-Nafis, the pulmonary circulation and the islamic golden age. J Appl Physiol. 2008;105:1877–80.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Yarmohammadi H, Dalfardi B, Rezaian J, Ghanizadeh A. Al-Akhawayni’s description of pulmonary circulation. Int J Cardiol. 2013;168:1819–21.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Zampieri F, Zanatta A, Thiene G. An etymological “autopsy” of Morgagni’s title: De sedibus et causis morborum per anatomen indagatis (1761). Hum Pathol. 2014;45:12–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Zareba KM. Circulation over the centuries: William Harvey (1578–1657). Cardiol J. 2007;14:214–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Zargaran A, Arezaei H. Discovery of the pulmonary circulation. Eur Heart J. 2016;37:3494.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Zarshenas MM, Zargaran A. A review on the Avicenna’s contribution to the field of cardiology. Int J Cardiol. 2015;182:237–41.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Zimmer HG. Who discovered the Frank-Starling mechanism? News Physiol Sci. 2002;17:181–4.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam Cardiovascular SciencesVU University Medical CenterAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Laboratory of Translational Nutrition BiologyFederal Institute of Technology Zurich ETHZZurichSwitzerland
  3. 3.Center for Molecular CardiologyUniversity of ZurichZurichSwitzerland
  4. 4.University Heart Center, CardiologyUniversity Hospital ZurichZurichSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations