Advertisement

Disadvantaged Communities in Indonesian Semi-Arid Regions: An Investigation of Food Security Issues in Selected Subsistence Communities in West Timor

  • Yenny TjoeEmail author
  • Paulus Adrianus Ratumakin
  • Moazzem Hossain
  • Peter Davey
Chapter

Abstract

Traditional subsistence farming is an important part of rural society, the yield is a measure of the main source of food to maintain health and livelihoods of rural households. This chapter chiefly investigated the food security issues in AtoinMeto, a subsistence community in semi-arid West Timor, Indonesia. It discusses the concept of subsistence living from the perspective of food sovereignty and food security. Data were collected in Kupang and Timor Tengah Selatan Regencies in West Timor, via mixed-methods of participant observations, and both quantitative household surveys, and in-depth key informant interviews..

This study found that local knowledge and values of AtoinMeto is founded on their existing clan regime and emotionally bonded moral values. This community maintains food sovereignty without overly using the local resources: following seasonal cycles to grow staple food (self-sufficient) and earn cash income via multiple activities within and outside the community to offset declining food stock. However, the system has weaknesses and to support their adaptation to climate change, this chapter suggests three solutions to enhance their food production, improve nutritional value of local diets and develop their ability to market produce.

The findings of this study imply that, in order to attain sustainable food security for the disadvantaged subsistence community, it is vital that any solutions link to the existing community’s knowledge of and values within the cycle of food production and resource use. International organisations and governments must consider this important point and answer the question: How to apply collaborations between technology and local knowledge to the development process?

Keywords

Subsistence community Semi-arid Local knowledge Community values Ancestral territories Food security Sustainable livelihoods AtoinMeto Tribal community West Timor 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This paper is based on part of the results of an approved Ph.D. research and supported fully by Griffith University. The authors would like to acknowledge local academics and practitioners in Kupang City, IRGSC (Institute of Resource, Governance and Social Change), FAN (Forum Academia NTT), and Perkumpulan PIKUL, for providing their valuable insights about rural development in NTT and their assistance on the procedure for conducting fieldwork in the region. Also, the authors would like to express their gratitude to the local hosts, local guide and the AtoinMeto communities in the three research sites for their participation and hospitality during the data collection period in West Timor.

Supplementary material

Video 19.1

Subsistence community in West Timor (MP4 241007 kb)

References

  1. Abele, S., & Frohberg, K. (Eds.). (2003). Subsistence agriculture in Central and Eastern Europe: how to break the vicious cycle? Introductory note, IAMO studies on the Agricultural and Food Sector in Central and Eastern Europe (Vol. 22, pp. I–VI). Halle: Institute of Agricultural Development in Central and Eastern Europe.Google Scholar
  2. Berkes, F. (2009). Indigenous way of knowing and the study of environmental change. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand, 39, 151–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. BNPB. (2009). Peta Kejadian Bencana di Propinsi Nusa Tenggara Timur Tahun 2008 (East Nusa Tenggara 2008 Natural Disaster Incidence Map). Jakarta: Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana (National Bureau for Disaster Management of the Republic of Indonesia).Google Scholar
  4. Boli Sura, Y., Fanggidae, V., Medah, A., Nggili, S., & Simanjuntak, L. (2010). Keamanan pangan, pembangunan dan pemiskinan di Nusa Tenggara Timur: Studi kasus Desa Oelnasi, Kabupaten Kupang (Food security, development and impoverishment in East Nusa Tenggara: A case study of Oelnasi Village, Kupang Regency). Journal of NTT Studies, 2(1), 8–30 Retrieved from http://ntt-academia.org/nttstudies/Bolidkk2010.Google Scholar
  5. BPPK. (2008). Riset Kesehatan Dasar 2008 (Indonesia Basic Health Research 2008). Jakarta: Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan (National Institute of Health Research and Development), Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia (Ministri of Health of the Republic of Indonesia).Google Scholar
  6. BPPK. (2013). Riset Kesehatan Dasar 2013 (Indonesia Basic Health Research 2013). Jakarta: Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan (National Institute of Health Research and Development), Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia (Ministri of Health of the Republic of Indonesia).Google Scholar
  7. BPS Indonesia. (2016). Badan Pusat Statistik (Central Bureau of Statistics Indonesia). Retrieved February 20, 2016, from https://www.bps.go.id/linkTableDinamis/view/id/1219
  8. BPS NTT. (2014). NTT in figures year 2013. Kupang City: Badan Pusat Statistik NTT (NTT Provincial Central Bureau of Statistics), Nusa Tenggara Timur (NTT).Google Scholar
  9. BPS NTT. (2015). Produk Domestik Regional Bruto Menurut Lapangan Usaha, 2004–2013 (Gross Regional Domestic Product by Industrial Origin, 2004–2013). Kupang: Badan Pusat Statistik NTT (NTT Provincial Central Bureau of Statistics) Retrieved March 20, 2015, from http://ntt.bps.go.id/linkTableDinamis/view/id/41.Google Scholar
  10. BPS NTT. (2017). Jumlah Penduduk per Kabupaten/Kota Tahun 1980, 1990, 2000, 2010, 2011–2016 (Number of Population by Regency/City 1980, 1990, 2000, 2010, 2011–2016). Kupang: Badan Pusat Statistik NTT (NTT Provincial Central Bureau of Statistics) Retrieved August 17, 2017, from http://ntt.bps.go.id/linkTableDinamis/view/id/360.Google Scholar
  11. BWS NTII. (2016). Balai Wilayah Sungai Nusa Tenggara II (Office of River Region Nusa Tenggara II). Retrieved from http://bwsnt2.org/web/
  12. Chambers, R., & Conway, G. (1992). Sustainable rural livelihoods: Practical concepts for the 21st century’. Discussion paper 296. Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex: Brighton.Google Scholar
  13. Comenetz, J., & Caviedes, C. (2002). Climate variability, political crises, and historical population displacements in Ethiopia. Global Environmental Change Part B: Environmental Hazards, 4, 113–127.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hazards.2003.08.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Conklin, H. C. (1961). The study of shifting cultivation. Current Anthropology, 2(1), 27–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Davidova, S., Fredriksson, L., Gorton, M., Mishev, P., & Petrovici, D. (2012). Subsistence farming, incomes, and agricultural livelihoods in the new member states of the European Union. Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, 30, 209–227.  https://doi.org/10.1068/c1195r.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Department for International Development (DFID). (1999). Sustainable livelihoods guidance sheets (p. 10). London: DFID Retrieved November 3, 2012, from http://files.ennonline.net/attachments/871/dfid-sustainablelivelihoods-guidance-sheet-section1.pdf.Google Scholar
  17. DPU NTT. (2014). Rencana strategis 2014–2018 (Strategic Plan 2014–2108). Kupang City: Dinas Pekerjaan Umum Provinsi NTT (Department of Public Works NTT Province), Nusa Tenggara Timur (NTT).Google Scholar
  18. Duncan, C. R. (2004). From development to empowerment: Changing Indonesian government policies towards Indigenous minorities. In C. R. Duncan (Ed.), Civilizing the margins: Southeast Asian Government Policies for the Development of Minorities (pp. 86–111). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Fanggidae, S., Ratumakin, P. A. (2014). Nelayan dan petani membaca cuaca dan musim: Sebuah kajian tentang pengetahuan nelayan dan petani atas informasi cuaca dan musim (Fisherman and farmer in reading the climate and season: An analysis of the knowledge of fisherman and farmer on the climatic and seasonal information). Jakarta: Indonesia Climate Change Trust Fund and Perkumpulan, PIKUL.Google Scholar
  20. FAO. (2009). Rome declaration of the world food summit on food security, world summit on food security, 16–18 November 2009. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.Google Scholar
  21. FAO. (2010). FAO policy on indigenous and tribal peoples. Rome: FAO Retrieved October 15, 2016, from http://www.fao.org/docrep/013/i1857e/i1857e00.pdf.Google Scholar
  22. Fisk, E. K. (1975). The neglect of traditional food production in pacific countries. Australian Outlook, 29(2), 149–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Flick, U. (2009). An introduction to qualitative research (4th ed.). London: SAGE.Google Scholar
  24. Fox, J. J. (1999). Precedence in practice among the Atoni Pah Meto of Timor. In L. V. Aragon & S. D. Russell (Eds.), Structuralism’s transformations: order and revisions in Indonesia and Malaysia (pp. 1–36). Tucson, AZ: Center for Southeast Asian Studies, Arizona State University.Google Scholar
  25. Fraser, E. D. G. (2003). Social vulnerability and ecological fragility: Building bridges between social and natural sciences using the Irish Potato Famine as a case study. Conservation Ecology, 7(2), Article 9 Retrieved from http://www.consecol.org/vol7/iss2/art9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Glaser, B. G. (1978). Theoretical sensitivity. Mill Valley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  27. Goldsmith, E. (1998). The way: An ecological world-view (revised and enlarged edition). Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press ISBN: 0820320307.Google Scholar
  28. Hahn, M. B., Riederer, A. M., & Foster, S. O. (2009). The Livelihood Vulnerability Index: A pragmatic approach to assessing risks from climate variability and change— A case study in Mozambique. Global Environmental Change, 19(1), 74–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kemenkes. (2011). Panduan Penyelenggaraan Pemberian Makanan Tambahan Pemulihan Bagi Balita Gizi Kurang (Bantuan Operasional) (Guidebook for Implementation of Supplementary Food – Recovery Programme for Children Malnutrition (Operational Assistance)). Jakarta: Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia Retrieved October 20, 2016, from http://gizi.depkes.go.id/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Panduan-PMT-BOK.pdf.Google Scholar
  30. Kuokkanen, R. (2011). Indigenous economies, theories of subsistence, and women: Exploring the social economy model for indigenous governance. American Indian Quarterly, 35(2), 215–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Larsen, A. F. (2009). Semi-subsistence producers and biosecurity in the Slovenian Alps. Sociologia Ruralis, 49, 330–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Law No. 1/1957. Undang – Undang Nomor 1 Tahun 1957. Tentang Pokok – Pokok Pemerintahan Daerah (Basic Law on Local Administration).Google Scholar
  33. Law No. 18/1965. Undang – Undang Nomor 18 Tahun 1965, Tentang Pokok – Pokok Pemerintahan Daerah (Basic Law on Local Administration).Google Scholar
  34. Leonard, S., Parson, M., Olawsky, K., & Kofod, F. (2013). The role of culture and traditional knowledge in climate change adaptation: Insights from East Kimberley, Australia. Global Environmental Change, 23, 623–632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Manner, H. I. (1981). Ecological succession in new and old swiddens of Montane Papua New Guinea. Human Ecology, 9, 359–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Minister of Health. (2015). Regulation of the Minister of Health No. 11/2015, Peraturan Menteri Kesehatan No. 11 Tahun 2015, Tentang Petunjuk Teknis Bantuan Operasional Kesehatan (on Technical Guidance of the Health Operational Assistance).Google Scholar
  37. Muslimatun, S., & Fanggidae, S. (2009). A brief review on the persistent of food insecurity and malnutrition problems in East Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia, Working Paper 12. Kupang: Institute of Indonesia Tenggara Timur Studies (NTT Studies), IITTS Publications (Open Sources).Google Scholar
  38. Ompusunggu, S., Syachroni, S. U., Yulianto, A., & Kulla, R. K. (2013). Riset Kesehatan Dasar Dalam Angka Provinsi Nusa Tenggara Timur 2013 (NTT Province Basic Health Research in Figures 2013). Jakarta: Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan (National Institute of Health Research and Development), Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia (Ministri of Health of the Republic of Indonesia) ISBN: 978-602-235-569-4.Google Scholar
  39. Pambudi, R. S. (2015). Evaluasi Program Pemberian Makanan Tambahan Pemulihan (PMT P) untuk Balita Gizi Buruk di Kabupaten Gunungkidul (Evaluation of Supplementary Food – Recovery Programme for Children Malnutrition in Gunungkidul), unpublished dissertation, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta. Retrieved October 26, 2016, from http://etd.repository.ugm.ac.id/index.php?act=view&buku_id=78141&mod=penelitian_detail&sub=PenelitianDetail&typ=html.
  40. Pamsimas (2017) Penyediaan Air Minum dan Sanitasi Berbasis Masyarakat (Community-Based Water Supply and Sanitation Program).. Retrieved July 10, 2016, from http://www.pamsimas.org
  41. Petheram, L., Zander, K. K., Campbell, B. M., High, C., & Stacey, N. (2010). Strange changes: Indigenous perspectives on climate change and adaptation in NE Arnhem Land (Australia). Global Environmental Change, 20(4), 681–692.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Pusdatin. (2008). Peta Kesehatan Indonesia 2007 (Indonesia Health Map 2007). Jakarta: Pusat Data dan Informasi Departemen Kesehatan (Centre for Data and Information), Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia.Google Scholar
  43. Pusdatin. (2014). Peta Kesehatan Indonesia 2013 (Indonesia Health Map 2013). Jakarta: Pusat Data dan Informasi Departemen Kesehatan (Centre for Data and Information), Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia.Google Scholar
  44. Radio Republik Indonesia. (2015). Program PMT bagi balita gizi buruk di NTT terhambat prosedur dana Bansos (PMT Programme for children malnutrition in NTT hampered by social grants procedures). Retrieved September 23, 2016, from http://www.rri.co.id/post/berita/177606/daerah/program_pmt_bagi_balita_gizi_burub_di_ntt_terhambat_prosedur_dana_bansos.html
  45. Ratumakin, P. A., Kuswardono, P. T., Heo, M. J., & Weo, Y. U. P. (2016). Pengetahuan Lokal Dalam Keberlanjutan Pengelolaan air (local knowledge in sustainability water management). Kupang: Perkumpulan PIKUL ISBN: 978-602-74097-0-5.Google Scholar
  46. Riedlinger, D. (1999). Climate change and the Inuvialuit of Banks Island, NWT: Using traditional environmental knowledge to complement Western science. InfoNorth (Arctic), 52(4), 430–432.Google Scholar
  47. Seavoy, R. E. (2000). Subsistence and economic development. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group ISBN 9780275967819.Google Scholar
  48. Strauss, A. L., & Corbin, J. M. (1990). Basics of qualitative research: Grounded theory procedures and techniques. Newbury Park, CA: SAGE Publications ISBN: 0-8039-3250-2.Google Scholar
  49. Tempo.co. (2014) NTT farmers threathened by drought, famine. Retrieved September 10, 2016, from http://en.tempo.co/read/news/2014/03/08/055560495/NTT-Farmers-Threatened-by-Draught-Famine
  50. Tempo.co. (2016) Kekeringan, NTT Terancam Kelaparan (Droughts, Famine Threatens East Nusa Tenggara (NTT)). Retrieved September 11, 2016, from http://nasional.tempo.co/read/news/2016/01/11/058734836/kekeringan-ntt-terancam-kelaparan
  51. Tjoe, Y. (2016a). Measuring the livelihood vulnerability index of a dry region in Indonesia. World Journal of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development, 13(4), 250–274.  https://doi.org/10.1108/WJSTSD-01-2016-0013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Tjoe, Y (2016b) Sustaining livelihoods: An analysis of dryland communities in West Timor, Indonesia, Ph.D. thesis, Griffith University, Australia.Google Scholar
  53. Tyas Arum Sari Dewi B, & Rahaju, T. (2015). Evaluasi Program Pemberian Makanan Tambahan Bagi Balita di Posyandu Melati V RW V di Kelurahan Lontar, Kecamatan Sambikerep, Kota Surabaya (Evaluation of Supplementary Food Programme for Children Under Five in the Integrated Service Post (Posyandu) Melati V RW V in Lontar Village, Sambikerep District, Surabaya City), unpublished dissertation, Universitas Negeri Surabaya, Surabaya. Retrieved October 26, 2016, from http://id.portalgaruda.org/index.php?page=19&ipp=10&ref=browse&mod=viewjournal&journal=4761.
  54. UNDP. (2017). Strategic planning and action to strengthen climate resilience of communities in Nusa Tenggara Timor Province (SPARC), United Nations Development Program. Retrieved July 10, 2016, from http://adaptation-undp.org/projects/sccf-indonesia.
  55. UNPFII. (2007). United Nations permanent forum on indigenous issues special theme: Territories, lands and natural resources, sixth session, 14–25 May 2007, United Nations Headquarter. New York, NY: United Nations.Google Scholar
  56. Wharton, C. R. (1969). Subsistence agriculture: Concepts and scope. In C. R. Wharton (Ed.), Subsistence agriculture and economic development (pp. 12–20). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  57. Wolf, J., & Mosser, S. (2011). Individual understandings, perceptions, and engagement with climate change: Insights from in-depth studies across the worlds. WIREs Climate Change, 2(4), 547–569.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. World Bank. (2003). Implementation of operational directive 4.20 on indigenous peoples: an independent desk review. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  59. World Bank. (2015a). Indigenous Latin America in the twenty-first century. Washington DC: World Bank Group Retrieved June 8, 2016, from https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/23751/Indigenous0Lat0y000the0first0decade.pdf.Google Scholar
  60. World Bank. (2015b). PAMSIMAS – Responding to the water and sanitation challenges in rural Indonesia. Washington DC: World Bank Group Retrieved August 19, 2016, from http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/938961468195535278/PAMSIMAS-Responding-to-the-water-and-sanitation-challenges-in-Rural-Indonesia.Google Scholar
  61. World Food Programme Indonesia. (2016). Indonesia food security monitoring bulleting, special focus: Impact of El Nino (Vol. 2). Jakarta: World Food Programme Indonesia and Government of Indonesia Retrieved September 23, 2016, from http://www.wfp.org/content/indonesia-food-security-monitoring-2015.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yenny Tjoe
    • 1
    Email author
  • Paulus Adrianus Ratumakin
    • 2
  • Moazzem Hossain
    • 1
  • Peter Davey
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of International Business and Asian StudiesGriffith UniversityNathanAustralia
  2. 2.Faculty of Social and Political ScienceCatholic University of Widya MandiraKupangIndonesia
  3. 3.School of EnvironmentGriffith UniversityNathanAustralia

Personalised recommendations