An Agroecological Strategy for Adapting to Climate Change: The System of Rice Intensification (SRI)

  • Norman UphoffEmail author
  • Amod K. Thakur


Farmers around the world have to cope with the adverse effects of climate change in their efforts to provide food security for themselves and their families and, to the extent possible, for others. Agricultural production methods developed for less-challenging and more-predictable climatic conditions need to be rethought and revised. The ideas and methods that constitute the system of rice intensification (SRI) developed in Madagascar, and now being extrapolated to other crops beyond rice, are enabling farmers to get more production from their available resources by making reductions in seed, water, and agrochemical inputs. Fortuitously, SRI crops are also more resistant and resilient to the hazards of climate change. When SRI methods are used in irrigated rice production, there is also a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. The main factors that are contributing to SRI crops’ ability to adapt to and mitigate climate-change effects are the enhancement of the growth and functioning of their root systems and at the same time the abundance and diversity of life forms enhanced in the soil by SRI management. Root systems and the soil biota were both ignored by Green Revolution technology. This chapter reviews what is known about SRI as an agroecological approach to enhancing food security under climate-stressed conditions.


Climate change Climate resilience Food security Improved crop phenotypes Reduction in greenhouse gas emissions System of rice intensification 


  1. Abraham, B., Arayu, H., Berhe, T., Edwards, S., Gujja, B., Khadka, R. B., Koma, Y. S., Sen, D., Sharif, A., Styger, E., Uphoff, N., & Verma, A. (2014). The system of crop intensification (SCI): Reports from the field on improving agricultural production, food security, and resilience to climate change for multiple crops. Agriculture and Food Security, 3, 4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adhikari, P., Arayu, H., Aruna, G., Balamatti, A., Banerjee, S., Barah, B. C., Baskaran, P., Behera, D., Berhe, T., Boruah, P., Dhar, S., Edwards, S., Fulford, M., Gujja, B., Ibrahima, H., Kabir, H., Kassam, A., Khadka, R. B., Koma, Y. S., Natarajan, U. S., Perez, R., Sen, D., Sharif, A., Singh, G., Styger, E., Thakur, A., Tiwari, A., Uphoff, N., & Verma, A. (2017). System of crop intensification for diversified, sustainable agriculture. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability, 16, 1–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Africare/Oxfam America/WWF. (2010). Farmers leading the way from crisis to resilience: Global farmer perspectives on the system of rice intensification.
  4. Anas, I., Rupela, O. P., Thiyagarajan, T. M., & Uphoff, N. (2011). A review of studies on SRI effects on beneficial organisms in rice soil rhizospheres. Paddy and Water Environment, 9, 53–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Araya, H., Edwards, S., Asmelash, A., Legasse, H., Zibelo, G. H., Assefa, T., Mohammed, E., & Misgina, S. (2013). SCI: Planting with space. Farming Matters, 29, 34–37.Google Scholar
  6. Barison, J., & Uphoff, N. (2011). Rice yield and its relation to root growth and nutrient-use efficiency under SRI and conventional cultivation: An evaluation in Madagascar. Paddy and Water Environment, 9, 65–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barrett, C. B., Moser, C., Barison, J., & McHugh, O. V. (2004). Better technology, better plots or better farmers? Identifying changes in productivity and risk among Malagasy rice farmers. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 86, 869–888.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chaboussou, F. (2004). Healthy crops: A new agricultural revolution. Charnley: Jon Anderson.Google Scholar
  9. Chapagain, T., & Yamaji, E. (2010). The effects of irrigation method, age of seedling and spacing on crop performance productivity and water-wise rice production in Japan. Paddy and Water Environment, 8, 81–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chi, F., Shen, S. H., Cheng, H. P., Jing, Y. X., Yanni, Y. G., & Dazzo, F. B. (2005). Ascending migration of endophytic rhizobia, from roots to leaves, inside rice plants and assessment of benefits to rice growth physiology. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 71, 7271–7278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chi, F., Yang, P. F., Han, F., Jing, Y. X., & Shen, S. H. (2010). Proteomic analysis of rice seedlings infected by Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021. Proteomics, 10, 1861–1874.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cho, I., & Blaser, M. J. (2013). The human microbiome: At the interface between health and disease. Nature Reviews: Genetics, 13, 260–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Choi, J. D., Kim, G. Y., Park, W. J., Shin, M. H., Choi, Y. H., Lee, S., Kim, S. J., & Yun, D. K. (2014). Effect of SRI water management on water quality and greenhouse gas emissions in Korea. Irrigation and Drainage, 63, 263–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cook, G., & O’Connor, T. (2009). Rice aplenty in Aceh. Caritas News, 2009, 9–11 Scholar
  15. Dhar, S., Barah, B. C., Vyas, A. K., & Uphoff, N. (2015). Evaluation of System of Wheat Intensification (SWI) practices as compared to other methods of improved wheat cultivation in the north-western plain zone of India. Archives in Agronomy and Soil Science, 62, 994–1006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dill, J., Deichert, G., & Le, T. N. T. (Eds.). (2013). Promoting the system of rice intensification: lessons learned from Trà Vinh Province, Vietnam. Hanoi: GIZ and International Fund for Agricultural Development.Google Scholar
  17. Diwakar, M. C., Kumar, A., Verma, A., & Uphoff, N. (2012). Report on the world record SRI yields in kharif season 2011 in Nalanda district, Bihar state, India. Agriculture Today, 15, 54–56.Google Scholar
  18. Dobermann, A. (2004). A critical assessment of the system of rice intensification (SRI). Agricultural Systems, 79, 261–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Doni, F., Zain, C. R. C. M., Isahak, A., Fathurrahman, F., Sulaiman, N., Uphoff, N., & Yusoff, W. M. W. (2016). Relationships observed between Trichoderma inoculation and characteristics of rice grown under System of Rice Intensification (SRI) vs. conventional methods of cultivation. Symbiosis, 72(1), 45–59. Scholar
  20. Doni, F., Zain, C. R. C. M., Isahak, A., Fathurrahman, F., Anhar, A., Yusoff, W. M. W., & Uphoff, N. (2017). Synergistic effects of System of Rice Intensification (SRI) management and Trichoderma asperellum SL2 increase the resistance of rice plants (Oryza sativa L.) against sheath blight (Rhizoctonia solani) infection. Australasian Plant Pathology Accepted. Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology, instead of Australasian Plant PathologyGoogle Scholar
  21. FAO. (2010). ‘Climate-Smart’ agriculture: Policies, practices and financing for food security, adaptation and mitigation. Rome: UN Food and Agriculture Organization.Google Scholar
  22. FAO. (2015). Save and grow: Maize, rice and wheat – A guide to sustainable crop production (pp. 44–47). Rome: UN Food and Agriculture Organization.Google Scholar
  23. Gathorne-Hardy, A., Narasimha Reddy, D., Venkatanarayana, M., & Harriss-White, B. (2013). A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of greenhouse gas emissions from SRI and flooded rice production in SE India. Taiwan Water Conservancy, 61, 110–125.Google Scholar
  24. Gathorne-Hardy, A., Narasimha Reddy, D., Venkatanarayana, M., & Harriss-White, B. (2016). System of Rice Intensification provides environmental and economic gains but at the expense of social sustainability: A multidisciplinary analysis in India. Agricultural Systems, 143, 159–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Geetha Lakshmi, V., Tesfai, M., Lakshmanan, A., Borrell, A., Nagothu, U. S., Arasu, M. S., Senthilraja, K., Mainkandan, N., & Sumathi, S. (2016). System of rice intensification: Climate-smart rice cultivation system to mitigate climate change impacts. In U. S. Nagothu (Ed.), Climate change and agricultural development: Improving resilience through climate-smart agriculture, agroecology and conservation (pp. 234–261). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  26. Gopalakrishnan, S., Mahender Kumar, R., Humayun, P., Srinivas, V., Ratna Kumari, B., Vijayabharathi, R., Singh, A., Surekha, K., Padmavathi, C., Somashekar, N., Raghuveer Rao, P., Latha, P. C., Subba Rao, L. V., Babu, V. R., Viraktamath, B. C., Vinod Goud, V., Loganandhan, N., Gujja, B., & Rupela, O. (2013). Assessment of different methods of rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivation affecting growth parameters, soil chemical, biological and microbiological properties, water saving, and grain yield in rice-rice system. Paddy and Water Environment, 12, 79–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gujja, B., Natarajan, U. S., & Uphoff, N. (2017). Sustainable sugarcane initiative: A new methodology, its overview, and key challenges. In P. Rott (Ed.), Achieving sustainable cultivation of sugarcane. Cambridge: Burleigh-Dodds.Google Scholar
  28. Hameed, K. A., Mosa, A. J. K., & Jaber, F. A. (2011). Irrigation water reductions using System of Rice Intensification compared with conventional cultivation methods in Iraq. Paddy and Water Environment, 9, 121–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hayami, Y., & Ruttan, V. W. (1985). Agricultural development: An international perspective (2nd ed.). Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  30. Jagannath, P., Pullabothla, H., & Uphoff, N. (2013). Meta-analysis evaluating water use, water saving, and water productivity in irrigated production of rice with SRI vs. standard management methods. Taiwan Water Conservancy, 61, 14–49.Google Scholar
  31. Jain, N., Dubey, R., Dubey, D. S., Singh, J., Khanna, M., Pathak, H., & Bhatia, A. (2014). Mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions with system of rice intensification in the Indo-Gangetic plains. Paddy and Water Environment, 12, 355–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kabir, H., & Uphoff, N. (2007). Results of disseminating the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) with farmer field school methods in northern Myanmar. Experimental Agriculture, 43, 463–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kar, S., Varade, S. B., Subramanyam, T. K., & Ghildyal, B. P. (1974). Nature and growth pattern of rice root system under submerged and unsaturated conditions. Il Riso, 23, 173–179.Google Scholar
  34. Karthikeyan, K., Sosamma, J., & Purushothaman, S. M. (2010). Incidence of insect pests and natural enemies under SRI method of cultivation. Oryza, 47, 154–157.Google Scholar
  35. Laulanié, H. (1993). Le système de riziculture intensive malgache. Tropicultura, 11, 110–114 Tropicultura 29:183–187.Google Scholar
  36. Li, X. Y., Xu, X. L., & Li, H. (2005). A socio-economic assessment of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI): A case study of Xinsheng Village, Jianyang County, Sichuan Province. Report for College of Humanities and Development. Beijing: China Agricultural University Scholar
  37. Lin, X. Q., Zhu, D. F., Chen, H. Z., Cheng, S. H., & Uphoff, N. (2009). Effect of plant density and nitrogen fertilizer rates on grain yield and nitrogen uptake of hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.). Journal of Agrobiotechnology and Sustainable Development, 1, 44–53.Google Scholar
  38. Lin, X. Q., Zhu, D. F., & Lin, X. J. (2011). Effects of water management and organic fertilization with SRI crop practices on hybrid rice performance and rhizosphere dynamics. Paddy and Water Environment, 9, 33–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lu, S. H., Dong, Y. J., Yuan, J., Lee, H., & Padilla, H. (2013). A high-yielding, water-saving innovation combining SRI with plastic cover on no-till raised beds in Sichuan, China. Taiwan Water Conservancy, 61, 94–109.Google Scholar
  40. Mahender Kumar, R., Raghuveer Rao, P., Somasekhar, N., Surekha, K., Padmavathi, C. H., Srinivas Prasad, M., Ravindra Babu, V., Subba Rao, L. V., Latha, P. C., Sreedevi, B., Ravichandran, S., Ramprasad, A. S., Muthuraman, P., Gopalakrishnan, S., Vinod Goud, V., & Viraktamath, B. S. (2013). SRI – A method for sustainable intensification of rice production with enhanced water productivity. Agrotechnology, S11, 009. Scholar
  41. McDonald, A., Hobbs, P. R., & Riha, S. J. (2006). Does the System of Rice Intensification outperform conventional best management? A synopsis of the empirical record. Field Crops Research, 96, 31–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Mendes, R., Garbeva, P., & Raaijmakers, J. M. (2013). The rhizosphere microbiome: Significance of plant beneficial, plant pathogenic and human pathogenic organisms. FEMS Microbiology Reviews, 37(5), 634–663.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Mishra, A., & Salokhe, V. M. (2008). Seedling characteristics and the early growth of transplanted rice under different water regimes. Experimental Agriculture, 44, 1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Mishra, A., & Uphoff, N. (2013). Morphological and physiological responses of rice roots and shoots to varying water regimes and microbial densities. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science, 59, 705–731.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Montero, O. (2010). Using the system of rice intensification at El Pedregal in Costa Rica. Retrieved June 6, 2017, from
  46. Moser, C. M., & Barrett, C. B. (2003). The disappointing adoption dynamics of a yield-increasing low external-input technology: The case of SRI in Madagascar. Agricultural Systems, 76, 1085–1100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Namara, R. E., Bossio, D., Weligamage, P., & Herath, I. (2008). The practice and effects of System of Rice Intensification (SRI) in Sri Lanka. Quarterly Journal of International Agriculture, 47, 5–23.Google Scholar
  48. Ndiiri, J. A., Mati, B. M., & Uphoff, N. (2013). Water productivity under the System of Rice Intensification from experimental plots and farm surveys in Mwea, Kenya. Taiwan Water Conservancy, 61, 63–75.Google Scholar
  49. Padmavathi, C., Mahender, K. R., Subha, R. L. V., Surekha, K., Srinivas, P. M., Ravindra, B. V., & Pasala, I. C. (2009). Influence of SRI method of rice cultivation on insect pest incidence and arthropod diversity. Oryza, 46, 227–230.Google Scholar
  50. Palanisami, K., Karunakaran, K. R., Amarasinghe, U., & Ranganathan, C. R. (2013). Doing different things or doing it differently? Rice intensification practices in 13 states of India. Economic and Political Weekly, 48, 51–58.Google Scholar
  51. Pathak, M., Shakyar, R. C., Dinesh, S., & Shyam, S. (2012). Prevalence of insect pests, natural enemies and diseases in SRI (System of Rice Intensification) of rice cultivation in North East Region. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 20, 375–379.Google Scholar
  52. Sato, S., & Uphoff, N. (2007). A review of on-farm evaluations of system of rice intensification in Eastern Indonesia. CAB review of agriculture, veterinary science, nutrition and natural resources. Wallingford: CABI.Google Scholar
  53. Schlaeppi, K., & Bulgarelli, D. (2015). The plant microbiome at work. Molecular Plant Microbe Interactions, 28, 212–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Sharif, A. (2011). Technical adaptations for mechanized SRI production to achieve water saving and increased profitability in Punjab, Pakistan. Paddy and Water Environment, 9, 111–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Sheehy, J. E., Peng, S. B., Dobermann, A., Mitchell, P. L., Ferrer, A., Yang, J. C., Zou, Y. B., Zhong, X. H., & Huang, J. L. (2004). Fantastic yields in the system of rice intensification: Fact or fallacy? Field Crops Research, 88, 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Sinclair, T. R. (2004). Agronomic UFOs waste valuable scientific resources. Rice Today (Vol. 43). Los Baños: International Rice Research Institute.Google Scholar
  57. Sinclair, T. R., & Cassman, K. G. (2004). Agronomic UFOs. Field Crops Research, 88, 9–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Sinha, S. K., & Talati, J. (2007). The impact of system of rice intensification (SRI) on paddy productivity: Results of a study in Purulia District, West Bengal, India. Agricultural Water Management, 87, 55–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Stoop, W. A. (2011). The scientific case for the system of rice intensification and its relevance for sustainable crop intensification. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability, 9, 443–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Stoop, W. A., & Kassam, A. (2005). The SRI controversy: A response. Field Crops Research, 91, 357–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Styger, E., & Uphoff, N. (2016). The System of Rice Intensification (SRI): Revisiting agronomy for a changing climate. Practice brief. Global alliance for climate-smart agriculture. Rome: FAO.Google Scholar
  62. Styger, E., Aboubacrine, G., Attaher, M. A., & Uphoff, N. (2011). The system of rice intensifi-cation as a sustainable agricultural innovation: Introducing, adapting and scaling up SRI practices in the Timbuktu region of Mali. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability, 9, 67–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Sudhukar, T. R., & Reddy, P. N. (2007). Influence of system of rice intensification (SRI) on the incidence of insect pests (pp. 16–17). Agartala: 2nd National SRI Symposium October 3–5, Slides. Retrieved September 17, 2017, from Scholar
  64. Thakur, A. K., & Uphoff, N. (2017). How the System of Rice Intensification can contribute to climate-smart agriculture. Agronomy Journal, 109, 1163–1182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Thakur, A. K., Uphoff, N., & Antony, E. (2010a). An assessment of physiological effects of system of rice intensification (SRI) practices compared to recommended rice cultivation practices in India. Experimental Agriculture, 46, 77–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Thakur, A. K., Rath, S., Roychowdhury, S., & Uphoff, N. (2010b). Comparative performance of rice with system of rice intensification (SRI) and conventional management using different plant spacings. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 196, 146–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Thakur, A. K., Rath, S., & Kumar, A. (2011). Performance evaluation of rice varieties under System of Rice Intensification (SRI) compared with conventional transplanting system. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science, 57, 223–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Thakur, A. K., Rath, S., & Mandal, K. G. (2013). Differential responses of system of rice intensification (SRI) and conventional flooded-rice management methods to applications of nitrogen fertilizer. Plant and Soil, 370, 59–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Thakur, A. K., Uphoff, N., & Stoop, W. A. (2016). Scientific underpinnings of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI): What is known so far? Advances in Agronomy, 135, 147–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Thomas, V., & Ramzi, A. M. (2011). SRI contributions to rice production dealing with water management constraints in northeastern Afghanistan. Paddy and Water Environment, 9, 101–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Toriyama, K., & Ando, H. (2011). Towards an understanding of the high productivity of rice with system of rice intensification (SRI) management from the perspectives of soil and plant physiological processes. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 57, 636–649.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Turner, T. R., James, E. K., & Poole, P. S. (2013). The plant microbiome. Genome Biology, 14, 6 Scholar
  73. Uphoff, N. (2011). Agroecological approaches to ‘climate-proofing’ agriculture while raising productivity in the 21st century. In T. Sauer, J. Norman, & M. Sivakumar (Eds.), Sustaining soil productivity in response to global climate change (pp. 87–102). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell Table 7.2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Uphoff, N. (2015). The System of Rice Intensification (SRI): Responses to frequently-asked questions. Ithaca, NY: SRI-Rice.
  75. Uphoff, N. (2017). Developments in the System of Rice Intensification (SRI). In T. Sasaki (Ed.), Achieving sustainable cultivation of rice (Vol. 2). Cambridge: Burleigh-Dodds.Google Scholar
  76. Uphoff, N., & Randriamiharisoa, R. (2002). Reducing water use in irrigated rice production with the Madagascar System of Rice Intensification. In B. A. M. Bouman, H. Hengsdijk, B. Hardy, P. S. Bindraban, T. P. Tuong, & J. K. Ladha (Eds.), Water-wise rice production: Proceedings of the international workshop, 8–11 April 2002 (pp. 71–88). Los Baños: International Rice Research Institute.Google Scholar
  77. Uphoff, N., Ball, A., Fernandes, E. C. M., Herren, H., Husson, O., Laing, M., Palm, C., Pretty, J., Sanchez, P., Sanginga, N., & Thies, J. (Eds.). (2006). Biological approaches to sustainable soil systems. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  78. Uphoff, N., Kassam, A., & Stoop, W. (2008). A critical assessment of a desk study comparing crop production systems: The example of ‘the system of rice intensification’ versus ‘best management practices. Field Crops Research, 108, 109–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Uphoff, N., Chi, F., Dazzo, F. B., & Rodriguez, R. J. (2013). Soil fertility as a contingent rather than inherent characteristic: Considering the contributions of crop-symbiotic soil microbiota. In R. Lal & B. Stewart (Eds.), Principles of sustainable soil management in agroecosystems (pp. 141–166). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  80. Uzzaman, T., Sikder, R. K., Asif, M. I., Mehraj, H., & Jamal Uddin, A. F. M. (2015). Growth and yield trial of sixteen rice varieties under System of Rice Intensification. Scientia Agriculturae, 11, 81–89.Google Scholar
  81. Vent, O., Sabarmatee, & Uphoff, N. (2016). The System of Rice Intensification and its impacts on women: Reducing pain, discomfort and labour in rice farming while enhancing household food security. In A. Fletcher & W. Kubik (Eds.), Women in agriculture worldwide (pp. 55–75). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  82. Visalakshmi, V., Rao, P. R. M., & Satyanarayana, N. H. (2014). Impact of paddy cultivation systems on insect pest incidence. Journal of Crop and Weed, 10, 139–142.Google Scholar
  83. Wu, W., & Uphoff, N. (2015). A review of System of Rice Intensification in China. Plant and Soil, 393, 361–381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Xu, F. Y., Ma, J., Wang, H. Z., Liu, H. Y., Huang, Q. L., & Ma, W. B. (2005). Rice quality under the cultivation of SRI. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 31, 577–582 in Chinese.Google Scholar
  85. Yanni, Y. G., Rizk, R. Y., Abd El-Fattah, F. K., Squartin, A., Corich, V., Giacomini, A., de Bruijn, F., Rademaker, J., Maya-Flores, J., Ostrom, P., Vega-Hernandez, M., Hollings-worth, R. I., Martinez-Molina, E., Mateos, P., Velazquez, E., Wopereis, J., Triplett, E., Umali-Garcia, M., Anarna, J. A., Rolfe, B. G., Ladha, J. K., Hill, J., Mujoo, R., Ng, P. K., & Dazzo, F. B. (2001). The beneficial plant growth-promoting association of Rhizobacterium leguminosarum bv. trifolii in rice roots. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology, 28, 845–870.Google Scholar
  86. Yuan, L. P. (2002). A scientist’s perspective on experience with SRI in China for raising the yields of super hybrid rice. In N. Uphoff, E. Fernandes, L. P. Yuan, J. M. Peng, S. Rafaralahy, & J. Rabendrasana (Eds.), Assessments of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) (pp. 23–25). Ithaca, NY: Cornell International Institute for Food, Agriculture and Development Scholar
  87. Zhang, J. G., Chi, Z. Z., Li, X. Y., & Jiang, X. L. (2013). Agricultural water savings possible through SRI for water management in Sichuan, China. Taiwan Water Conservancy, 61, 50–72.Google Scholar
  88. Zhao, L. M., Wu, L. H., Li, Y. S., Lu, X. H., Zhu, D. F., & Uphoff, N. (2009). Influence of the System of Rice Intensification on rice yield and on nitrogen and water use efficiency with different N application rates. Experimental Agriculture, 45, 275–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Zhao, L. M., Wu, L. H., Li, Y. S., Animesh, S., Zhu, D. F., & Uphoff, N. (2010). Comparisons of yield, water use efficiency, and soil microbial biomass as affected by the System of Rice Intensification. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 41, 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.SRI International Network and Resources Center (SRI-Rice), International Programs, College of Agriculture and Life SciencesCornell UniversityIthacaUSA
  2. 2.Government and International AgricultureCornell UniversityIthacaUSA
  3. 3.ICAR–Indian Institute of Water ManagementBhubaneswarIndia

Personalised recommendations