## Abstract

Despite the importance of math, and the many attempts at reforming curricula and pedagogy, there continues to be systemic failure in the math education of students. There is a widening gap between what is taught in high school math and what is expected in college. There is a troubling disconnect between how math is taught in school and how professional scientists, engineers, and mathematicians use math. There is confusion in teaching why math is relevant by using clumsy examples that require much more facility with reading comprehension than with mathematical reasoning. Offloading arithmetic to calculators and substituting what amounts to algebra instruction in its place makes no sense pedagogically, developmentally, or in achieving the overarching goal of raising math standards. Children need a solid foundation in quantitative literacy. Instead, students arrive in college who have no sense about numbers, but they are expected to learn calculus in order to complete their degree requirements. Setting students up to fail at any level—K-12 or college—is unethical and a waste of time and resources. Yet this has become standard practice in education.

## References

- 1.Jordan Ellenberg,
*How not to be Wrong: The Power of Mathematical Thinking*(New York: Penguin Press, 2014).Google Scholar - 2.National Center for Education Statistics, “2003–04 and 2007–08 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study,” (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, 2010), NPSAS:04 and NPSAS:08. http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d10/tables/dt10_241.asp.
- 3.National Mathematics Advisory Panel,
*Foundations for Success: The Final Report of the National Mathematics Advisory Panel*(Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, 2008). https://www2.ed.gov/about/bdscomm/list/mathpanel/report/final-report.pdf.Google Scholar - 4.Karen Farkas, “Forty percent of high school graduates who enrolled in a public college in 2012 required remedial math or English,”
*Cleveland Plain Dealer*, January 17, 2014, http://www.cleveland.com/metro/index.ssf/2014/01/forty_percent_of_high_school_g.html. - 5.Adam Kemp, “Many Oklahoma students start college taking remedial classes,”
*The Oklahoman*, September 2, 2014, http://newsok.com/manyoklahoma-students-start-college-taking-remedial-classes/article/5337902. - 6.Karen Herzog, “UW spotlights ‘tragedy’ of students needing remedial help,”
*Milwaukee Journal Sentinel*, August 22, 2014, http://archive.jsonline.com/news/education/uw-spotlights-tragedy-of-students-needing-remedial-help-b99336149z1-272339141.html/?ipad=y. - 7.Adolfo Guzman-Lopez, “More than a third of Cal State freshmen ill-prepared for college-level math, English,”
*Southern California Public Radio education blogs*, February 19, 2014, http://www.scpr.org/blogs/education/2014/02/19/15882/more-than-a-third-of-cal-state-freshman-illprepar/. - 8.G. Martino and W. S. Wilson, “Doing the Math: Are Maryland’s high school math standards adding up to college success?” (Baltimore: Abell Foundation, 2009). http://www.abell.org/sites/default/files/publications/ed_DoingMath_0409.pdf.Google Scholar
- 9.“Accuplacer Tests,” College Board, accessed May 1, 2018, https://accuplacer.collegeboard.org/students.
- 10.Joseph Ganem, “A Math Paradox: The Widening Gap Between College and High School Math,”
*APS News*18, no. 9 (October 2009): 8. http://www.aps.org/publications/apsnews/200910/backpage.cfm. - 11.Mary L. Boas,
*Mathematical Methods in the Physical Sciences*, 2^{nd}Edition (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1983).Google Scholar - 12.Richard P. Feynman, “
*Surely You’re Joking, Mr. Feynman!”: Adventures of a Curious Character*, Ralph Leighton (contributor), Edward Hutching ed., (New York: W. W. Norton, 1985).Google Scholar - 13.Kahlil Gibran, “On Teaching,”
*The Prophet*(New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1923).Google Scholar - 14.Howard Gardner,
*Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences*(New York: Basic Books, 1983).Google Scholar - 15.Lorin W. Anderson, et al.,
*A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing: A Revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives*(New York: Pearson, 2000).Google Scholar - 16.K. Anders Ericsson, Neil Charness, and Paul J. Feltovich, eds.,
*Cambridge Handbook of Expertise and Expert Performance*(New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006).Google Scholar - 17.“About PARCC,” Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers, accessed June 15, 2015, http://www.parcconline.org/about-parcc.
- 18.“Sample Mathematics Item Grade 3: Vans for a field trip,” Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers, accessed January 15, 2015, http://www.parcconline.org/sites/parcc/files/PARCC_SampleItems_Mathematics_G3Vansforfieldtrip_081513_Final.pdf.
- 19.“Sample Mathematics Item Grade 4: Three Friends’ Beads,” Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers, accessed January 15, 2015, http://www.parcconline.org/sites/parcc/files/Grade4-ThreeFriends%27Beads.pdf.
- 20.“Sample Mathematics Item Grade 6: Proportion of Instruments,” Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers, accessed January 15, 2015, http://www.parcconline.org/sites/parcc/files/Grade6-ProportionsofInstruments.pdf.
- 21.Joseph Ganem, “Quantitative reasoning applied to modern advertising,”
*International Journal of Science and Society*1 (2009): 87–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 22.Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman, “The framing of decisions and the psychology of choice,”
*Science*211 (1981): 453–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 23.Joseph Ganem, “Integrating Quantitative and Financial Literacy,”
*JSM Proceedings*, (Alexandria, VA: American Statistical Association, 2011), 1562–1574.Google Scholar - 24.John R. Searle, “Minds, Brains and Programs,”
*Behavioral and Brain Sciences*3 (1980): 417–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar