• Pastora GallegoEmail author
Part of the Congenital Heart Disease in Adolescents and Adults book series (CHDAA)


Prevalence of heart failure is increasing in the ageing adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) population. Adult co-morbidities such as respiratory and liver diseases, renal dysfunction, anaemia, endocrine disorders, cognitive dysfunction, cardiovascular risk factors and acquired cardiovascular disease complicate heart failure (HF) care. These conditions further contribute to HF progression, may alter the response to treatment and are modifiers of outcomes. Optimal care of these patients, therefore, requires a careful and comprehensive multidisciplinary approach.


Co-morbidities Renal dysfunction Respiratory disease Cardiovascular disease Liver disease Extra-cardiac complications 


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Intercenter Adult Congenital Heart Disease Unit, Cardiology DepartmentHospital Universitario Virgen del RocioSevilleSpain

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