Anatomy and Physiology

  • José Javier G. Quezada-Euán


Workers of M. beecheii collecting pollen from a water lily.


Head Eyes Proboscis Antennae Thorax Wings Hamuli Legs Corbiculae Abdomen Heart Tracheae Ganglion Crop Ventriculus Gonostyle 


  1. Ayala R (1999) Revisión de las abejas sin aguijón de México (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini). Folia Entomológica Mexicana 106:1–123Google Scholar
  2. Crailsheim K (1990) The protein balance of the honey bee worker. Apidologie 21:417–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cruz-Landim C, Höfling JF, Zaniboni MC (1972) Estudo comparativo do cordão nervoso ventral em abelhas. In: Homenagem à Warwick E. Kerr. Rio Claro, Brasil, pp 113–134Google Scholar
  4. Dade HA (1985) Anatomy and dissection of the honeybee. International Bee Research Association, LondonGoogle Scholar
  5. Darchen R, Delage-Darchen B (1975) Contribution a l’étude d’une abeille du Mexique Melipona beecheii B. (Hymenoptére: Apidae). Le dèterminisme des caste chez les Mélipones. Apidologie 6:295–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Francoy TM, Grassi ML, Imperatriz-Fonseca VL, May-Itzá Wd J, Quezada-Euán JJG (2011) Geometric morphometrics of the wing as a tool for assigning genetic lineages and geographic origin in Melipona beecheii (Hymenoptera: Meliponini). Apidologie 42:499–507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hrncir M, Schorkopf DLP, Schmidt VM, Zucchi R, Barth FG (2008) The sound field generated by tethered stingless bees (Melipona scutellaris): inferences on its potential as a recruitment mechanism inside the hive. J Exp Biol 211:686–698CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Kerr WE (1950) Genetic determination of castes in the genus Melipona. Genetics 35:143–152PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Kerr WE, Lello E (1962) Sting glands in stingless bees—a vestigial character. J NY Entomol Soc 70:190–214Google Scholar
  10. Kerr WE, Nielsen RA (1966) Evidences that genetically determined Melipona queens can become workers. Genetics 54:859–866PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Michener CD (2001) Comments on minute Meliponini and the male of the genus Pariotrigona (Hymenoptera: Apidae). J Kansas Entomol Soc 74:231–236Google Scholar
  12. Packer L (2003) Comparative morphology of the skeletal parts of the sting apparatus of bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea). Zool J Linnean Soc 138:1–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Radović IT (1981) Anatomy and function of the sting apparatus of stingless bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Apinae). Proc Entomol Soc Wash 83:269–273Google Scholar
  14. Rasmussen C, Cameron SA (2010) Global stingless bee phylogeny supports ancient divergence, vicariance, and long distance dispersal. Biol J Linn Soc 99:206–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Santos CG, Serrão JE (2006) Histology of the ileum in bees (Hymenoptera, Apoidea). Braz J Morphol Sci 23:405–413Google Scholar
  16. Schwarz HF (1948) The stingless bees (Meliponinae) of the Western Hemisphere. Bull Am Mus Nat Hist 90:1–546Google Scholar
  17. Shackleton K, Toufailia A, Balfour NJ, Nasciento FS, Alves DA, Ratnieks FLW (2015) Appetite for self-destruction: suicidal biting as a nest defense strategy in Trigona stingless bees. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 69:273–281CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Wille A (1961) Evolutionary trends in the ventral nerve cord of the stingless bees (Meliponini). Rev Biol Trop 9:117–129Google Scholar
  19. Wille A (1979) Phylogeny and relationships among the genera and subgenera of the stingless bees (Meliponiane) of the world. Rev Biol Trop 27:241–277Google Scholar
  20. Winston ML (1987) The biology of the honey bee. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • José Javier G. Quezada-Euán
    • 1
  1. 1.Departamento de Apicultura Tropical, Campus de Ciencias Biológicas y AgropecuariasUniversidad Autónoma de YucatánMéridaMexico

Personalised recommendations