TQM’s Impact on the Legal Apparatus: Informing and Directing Compliance Practices

  • Fernando F. PadróEmail author
  • Jonathan H. Green


This chapter is one of the few attempts at exploring the impact the approach of Total Quality Management (TQM) has had on society through administrative law schemes, especially in education. Laws and regulations have been looked at and interpreted through the lens of the TQM related language. The idea is to provide educators – administrators and teachers – at all levels of the educational sector a means of understanding what TQM brings to the table as a means of informing day-to-day and strategic decision making.


Administrative procedure acts (APA) Neoliberalism Regulatory compliance Rules Standards Total quality management (TQM) 


  1. Aman, A. C., & Mayton. (2014). Administrative law (3rd ed.). St. Paul: West Academic Publishing.Google Scholar
  2. Asif, M., Raouf, A., & Searcy, C. (2013). Developing measures for performance excellence: Is the Baldrige criteria sufficient for performance excellence in higher education? Quality & Quantity, 47, 3095–3111.Google Scholar
  3. Australian Institute for Teaching and School Leadership (AITSL). (2015). Accreditation of initial teacher education programs: Standards and procedures. Melbourne: Education Services Australia.Google Scholar
  4. Badri, M. A., Selim, H., Alshare, K., Grandon, E. E., Younis, H., & Abdulla, M. (2006). The Baldrige education criteria for performance excellence framework: Empirical test and validation. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, 23(9), 1118–1157.Google Scholar
  5. Bae, S. H. (2007). The relationship between ISO 9000 participation and educational outcomes of schools. Quality Assurance in Education, 15(3), 251–270.Google Scholar
  6. Baldrige Performance Excellence Program (BPEP). (2015). 2015–2016 Baldrige excellence framework: A systems approach to improving your organization’s performance (Education). Gaithersburg: U.S. Department of Commerce, National Institute of Standards and Technology.Google Scholar
  7. Baldrige Performance Excellence Program (BPEP). (2015b). 2015–2016 Baldrige excellence framework: A systems approach to improving your organization’s technology. Gaithersburg: U.S. Department of Commerce, Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology.Google Scholar
  8. Berkes, F. (2007). Understanding uncertainty and reducing vulnerability: Lessons from resilience thinking. Natural Hazards, 41, 283–295.Google Scholar
  9. Berlin, D. F., & White, A. L. (2009). Preservice mathematics and science teachers in an integrated teacher preparation program for grades 7–12: A 3-year study of attitudes and perceptions related to integration. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 8, 97–115.Google Scholar
  10. Berliner, D. C. (1982, March). The executive function of teachers. Paper presented at the Wingspread conference on relating reading research to classroom instruction, Racine, WI. pp. 12–16.Google Scholar
  11. Bhat, V. N. (2006). TQM implementation: Does the legal system matter? Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 17(6), 685–690.Google Scholar
  12. Birnbaum, R. (2000). Management fads in higher education: Where they come from, what they do, why they fail. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  13. Bohr, N. (1963). Essays 1958–1962 on atomic physics and human knowledge. Bungay: Richard Clay and Company, Ltd.Google Scholar
  14. Bou-Llusar, J. C., Escrig-Tena, A. B., Roca-Puig, V., & Beltrán-Martín, I. (2009). An empirical assessment of the EFQM model: Evaluation as a TQM framework relative to the MBQNA model. Journal of Operations Management, 27(1), 1–22.Google Scholar
  15. Bradley, D., Noonan, P., Nugent, H., & Scales, B. (2008). A review of Australian higher education: Final report. Canberra: DEEWR.Google Scholar
  16. Caraman, I., Lazar, G., Bucuroiu, R., Lungu, O., & Stamate, M. (2008). How IWA 2 helps to implement a quality management system in Bacau university. International Journal for Quality Research, 2(4), 305–308.Google Scholar
  17. Chen, I.-S., Chen, J.-K., & Padró, F. F. (2017). Critical quality indicators of higher education. Total Quality & Business Excellence, 28(1–2), 130–146.Google Scholar
  18. Cheng, Y.-Y., Lyu, J., & Lin, Y.-C. (2004). Education improvement through ISO 9000 implementation: Experiences in Taiwan. International Journal of Engineering Education, 20(1), 91–95.Google Scholar
  19. Coaldrake, P., & Stedman, L. (2016). Raising the stakes: Gambling with the future of universities (2nd ed.). St. Lucia: University of Queensland Press.Google Scholar
  20. Conti, T. A. (2007). A history and review of the European quality award model. The TQM Magazine, 19(2), 112–128.Google Scholar
  21. Dow, K. L., & Braithwaite, V. (2013). Review of higher education regulation report. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia. Retrieved from
  22. Dworkin, R. (1986). Law’s empire. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press.Google Scholar
  23. El Abbaddi, L., Bouayard, A., & Lamrini, M. (2013). ISO 9001 and the field of higher education: Proposal for an update of the IWA 2 guidelines. Quality Approaches in Higher Education, 4(2), 14–19.Google Scholar
  24. Epstein, R. A. (2016). The role of guidance in modern administrative procedure: The case for de novo review. Journal of Legal Analysis, 8(1), 47–93.Google Scholar
  25. Farazmand, A. (2005). Role of government in an era of Total Quality Management (TQM) and globalization: Challenges and opportunities. Public Organization Review: A Global Journal, 5, 201–217.Google Scholar
  26. Federow, H. (1993). Total quality management: A survey of legal issues relating to implementation of TQM. Commercial Law Journal, 98, 96–116.Google Scholar
  27. Folke, C., Colding, J., & Berkes, F. (2003). Building resilience and adaptive capacity in social–ecological systems. In F. Berkes, J. Colding, & C. Folke (Eds.), Navigating social–ecological systems (pp. 352–387). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Fried, Y. (1995). TQM and the legal environment in the United States: A neglected issue in the TQM literature. The Academy of Management Review, 20(1), 15–17.Google Scholar
  29. Garvin, D. A. (1984). What does “product quality” really mean? Sloan Management Review, 25(1), 25–43.Google Scholar
  30. Godfrey, A. B. (1999). Total Quality Management. In J. M. Juran, A. B. Godfrey, R. E. Hoogstoel, & E. G. Schilling (Eds.), Juran’s quality handbook (5th ed., pp. 14.1–14.35). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  31. Hart, H. L. A. (1997). The concept of law (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Harvey, L. (2004). The power of accreditation: Views of academics. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 26(2), 207–223.Google Scholar
  33. Harvey, L., & Green, D. (1993). Defining quality. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 18(1), 9–34.Google Scholar
  34. Hayek, F. A. (1998/1973). Law, legislation and liberty: A new statement of the liberal principles of justice and political economy. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  35. Homburg, V., Pollitt, C., & van Thiel, S. (2007). Introduction. In C. Pollitt, S. van Thiel, & V. Homburg (Eds.), New public management in Europe: Adaptation and alternatives (pp. 1–9). Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  36. Houston, D. (2007). TQM and higher education: A critical systems perspective on fitness for purpose. Quality in Higher Education, 13(1), 3–17.Google Scholar
  37. Hurley, M. M., Padró, F. F., & Hawke, M. F. (2013). Will race to the top have the same mixed results no child left behind had on student learning and preservice teacher preparation? Quality Approaches in Higher Education, 4(2), 20–29.Google Scholar
  38. International Organization for Standardization (ISO). (2007). IWA 2: 2007: Quality management systems – Guidelines for the application of ISO 9001:2000 in education. Retrieved from:
  39. Japanese Union of Scientists and Engineers (JUSE). (2018). The application guide for The Deming Prize/The Deming Grand Prize 2018: For companies and organizations overseas. Retrieved from
  40. Juran, J. M. (1989). Juran on leadership for quality: An executive handbook. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  41. Kanji, G. K., & Asher, M. (1993). Total quality management process: A systematic approach. Oxford: Carfax.Google Scholar
  42. Kanji, G. K., Tambi, B. A., & Wallace, W. (1999). A comparative study of quality practices in higher education institutions in the US and Malaysia. Total Quality Management, 10(3), 357–371.Google Scholar
  43. Kelsen, H. (1952). The principles of international law. New York: Rinehart & Company, Inc.Google Scholar
  44. Kelsen, H. (1982). The concept of the legal order. The American Journal of Jurisprudence, 27(1), 64–84.Google Scholar
  45. Komulainen, K., Naskali, P., Korhonen, M., & Keskitalo-Foley, S. (2011). Internal entrepreneurship – A Trojan horse of the neoliberal governance of education? Finnish pre- and in-service teachers’ implementation of and resistance towards entrepreneurship education. Journal for Critical Education Policy Studies, 9(1), 342–373.Google Scholar
  46. Kontoghiorghes, C. (2003). Examining the association between quality and productivity performance in a service organization. Quality Management Journal, 10(1), 32–42.Google Scholar
  47. Lindborg, H., & Spangehl, S. D. (2011). U.S. higher education and accreditation: A quality perspective. ASQ Higher Education Brief December, 4(6), 1–7.Google Scholar
  48. Löffler, E. (2001). Defining and measuring quality in public administration. Bristol Business School Teaching and Research Review, 5(4), 15 pp.Google Scholar
  49. Lowi, T. J. (1985). The state in politics: The relationship between policy and administration. In R. G. Noll (Ed.), Regulatory policy and the social sciences (pp. 67–104). Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  50. Maram, A. (2008). Reassessment of the application of TQM in the public sector. International Public Management Review, 9(2), 194–212.Google Scholar
  51. Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education (DESE). (2016). Guidelines for program approval (Revised ed.). Malden: Author. Retrieved from
  52. McAdam, R., Reid, R., & Saulters, R. (2002). Sustaining quality in the UK public sector: Quality measurement frameworks. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 22(6), 478–498.Google Scholar
  53. McAuslan, P. (1988). Public law and public choice. The Modern Law Review, 51(6), 681–705.Google Scholar
  54. Metcalfe, A. (2010). Administrative law evolution: An administrator’s point of view. Admin Review, 59, 59–69.Google Scholar
  55. Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). (2017). PISA for development assessment and analytical framework: Reading, mathematics and science. (Preliminary version). Paris: Author.Google Scholar
  56. Padró, F. F. (1988). Quality circles and their existence in present-day high schools. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.Google Scholar
  57. Padró, F. F. (2009). Deming’s system of profound knowledge and its application to higher education institutions. Journal for Quality Progress, 32(1), 10–14.Google Scholar
  58. Padró, F. F., Hawke, M. F., & Hawke, L. M. (2016). Assessment and quality: Policy-steering and the making of a deus ex machina. In Bower & P. L. Thomas (Eds.), De-testing and de-grading schools: Authentic alternatives to accountability and standardization (Revised ed., pp. 33–50). New York: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  59. Pierce, R. J. (1988). Two problems in administrative law: Political polarity on the district of Columbia circuit and judicial deterrence of agency rulemaking. Duke Law Journal, 37, 300–328.Google Scholar
  60. Pollitt, C. (2004, November 3). From there to here, from now till then: Buying and borrowing public management reforms. Paper presented at CLAD ninth international conference, Madrid.Google Scholar
  61. Popper, K. (2002/1959). The logic of scientific discovery. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  62. Radin, B. A., & Coffee, J. N. (1993). A critique of TQM: Problems of implementation in the public sector. Public Administration Quarterly, 17(1), 42–54.Google Scholar
  63. Rothstein, B., & Teorell, J. (2008). What is quality of government? A theory of impartial government institutions. Governance: An International Journal of Policy, Administration, and Institutions, 21(2), 165–190.Google Scholar
  64. Sahney, S. (2016). Use of multiple methodologies for developing a customer-oriented model of total quality management in higher education. International Journal of Educational Management, 30(3), 326–353.Google Scholar
  65. Sahney, S., Banwet, D. K., & Karunes, S. (2004). A SERVQUAL and QFD approach to total quality education: A student perspective. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 53(2), 143–166.Google Scholar
  66. Sallis, E. (2002). Total quality in education (3rd ed.). London: Kogan Page.Google Scholar
  67. Shapiro, S. A. (2005). Pragmatic administrative law, Wake forest legal studies research papers series. Research paper no, 05-02. Retrieved from
  68. Stewart, R. B. (2003). Administrative law in the twenty-first century. New York University Law Review, 78(2), 437–460.Google Scholar
  69. Swift, J. A., Ross, J. E., & Omachonu, V. K. (1998). Principles of total quality (2nd ed.). Boca Raton: St. Lucie Press.Google Scholar
  70. Swiss, J. E. (1992). Adapting Total Quality Management (TQM) to government. Public Administration Review, 52(4), 356–362.Google Scholar
  71. Tabb, W. K. (1995). The post-war Japanese system: Cultural economy and economic transformation. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  72. Tague, N. R. (2005). The quality toolbox (2nd ed.). Milwaukee: American Society for Quality Press.Google Scholar
  73. Thornhauser, T., & Passmore, D. L. (2006). ISO 9000 in education: A comparison between the United States and England. Research in Comparative & International Education, 1(2), 156–173.Google Scholar
  74. Timmermans, S., & Epstein, S. (2010). A world of standards but not standards world: Towards a sociology of standards and standardization. Annual Review of Sociology, 36, 69–89.Google Scholar
  75. Vlăsceanu, L., Grünberg, L., & Pârlea, D. (2007). Quality assurance and accreditation: A glossary of basic terms and definitions (Revised ed.). Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  76. Walton, M. (1986). The Deming management method. New York: Perigee Books.Google Scholar
  77. Weick, K. E. (1993). The collapse of sensemaking in organizations: The Mann Gulch disaster. Administrative Science Quarterly, 38(4), 628–652.Google Scholar
  78. Williams, R., Bertsch, B., Dale, B., van der Wiele, T., van Iwaarden, J., Smith, M., & Visser, R. (2006). Quality and risk management: What are the key issues? The TQM Magazine, 18(1), 67–86.Google Scholar
  79. Winn, B. A., & Cameron, K. S. (1998). Organizational quality: An examination of the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality framework. Research in Higher Education, 39(5), 491–512.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Southern QueenslandToowoombaAustralia

Personalised recommendations