Advertisement

Compulsory Schooling and Cognitive Imperialism: A Case for Cognitive Justice and Reconciliation with Indigenous Peoples

  • Marie BattisteEmail author
  • James [Sa’ke’j] Youngblood Henderson
Chapter

Abstract

Compulsory education laws for Indigenous children in Canada based on Eurocentric knowledge systems have interrupted their normative holistic education, generated cognitive imperialism, induced cultural genocide and intergenerational trauma, and negatively affected their overall success outcomes for themselves and their self-determining communities. Contemporary educators, especially Indigenous educators, are now faced with ameliorative challenges for reconciling the traumatic, nihilistic effects of compulsory education, decolonizing the assimilation model, generating ethical space for Indigenizing the compulsory curricula, and creating a balanced compulsory curricula reform based on respect for constitutional rights of Aboriginal peoples and the United Nations Declaration of the Rights of Indigenous peoples. Accomplishing these challenges, the authors assert, a critical examination of public schooling and the Indigenizing of the academy are set to generate innovative, better educational systems for Indigenous children in Canada based on the hard lessons learned from the past.

Keywords

Aboriginal Indigenous Cognitive assimilation Eurocentrism Compulsory schools Indian Residential Schools Constitutional reconciliation Indigenization Holistic learning Cognitive justice 

References

  1. Alberta. (2000). Strengthening relationships. The Government of Alberta’s aboriginal policy framework. Edmonton: Alberta.Google Scholar
  2. Apple, M. (2006). Educating the right way. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  3. Assembly of First Nations (AFN). (2010). First Nations control of First Nations education: It’s our vision, it’s our time. Ottawa: Assembly of First Nations.Google Scholar
  4. Assembly of First Nations (AFN). (2012). Summary of the report of the National Panel on First Nation Elementary and Secondary Education for Students On-reserve. Nurturing the learning spirit of first nation students. Rose-Alma MacDonald, author. Ottawa: AFN Education Secretariat. Retrieved September 26, 2016, from http://www.afn.ca/uploads/files/education/sr_summary_of_the_national_panel_report_feb_14_2012_final.pdf
  5. Auditor General of Canada. (2004). November report of auditor general of Canada, ch 5 Indian and Northern affairs Canada – Education and post-secondary student support. Retrieved September 26, 2016, from http://www.oag-bvg.gc.ca/internet/English/parl_oag_200411_05_e_14909.html
  6. Auditor General of Canada. (2010). Indian and Northern Affairs Canada: Elementary and secondary education. Report to the House of Commons, Chapter 4. Ottawa: Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada.Google Scholar
  7. Avison, D. (2004, May). A challenge worth meeting: Opportunities for improving Aboriginal education outcomes. Prepared Report for the Council of Ministers in Education.Google Scholar
  8. Bartolome, L. I. (1994). Beyond the methods fetish: Toward a humanizing pedagogy. Harvard Educational Review, 64(2), 173–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bartolome, L. I. (2008). Ideologies in education: Unmasking the trap of teacher neutrality. New York: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  10. Battiste, M. (1986). Micmac literacy and cognitive assimilation. In J. Barman, Y. Hébert, & D. McCaskill (Eds.), Indian education in Canada: The legacy (Vol. I, pp. 23–44). Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.Google Scholar
  11. Battiste, M. (2005). State of Aboriginal learning. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Council on Learning.Google Scholar
  12. Battiste, M. (2007). The struggle and renaissance of Indigenous knowledge in Eurocentric education. In M. Villegas, S. Rak Neugebauer, & K. R. Venegas (Eds.), Indigenous knowledge and education: Sites of struggle, strength, and Survivance, Harvard Education Review reprint series no. 44 (pp. 85–91). Cambridge, MA: Harvard Educational Publishing Group.Google Scholar
  13. Battiste, M. (2009). Constitutional reconciliation of education for Aboriginal peoples/La réconciliation constitutionnelle des Autochtones et leurs droits éducationnels Directions, 5(1), 81–84.Google Scholar
  14. Battiste, M. (2013). Decolonizing education: Nourishing the learning spirit. Saskatoon and Vancouver: Purich Press and University of British Columbia.Google Scholar
  15. Bouvier, R., Battiste, M., & Laughlin, J. (2016). Centring Indigenous intellectual traditions on holistic lifelong learning. In F. Deer & T. Falkenberg (Eds.), Indigenous perspectives on education for well-being in Canada (pp. 21–40). Winnipeg: Education for Sustainable Well-Being Press, University of Manitoba. Retrieved March 15, 2017, from http://www.eswb-press.org/uploads/1/2/8/9/12899389/indigeneous_perspectives_2016.pdf
  16. Calliste, A., & Dei, G. J. S. (Eds.). (2000). Anti-racist feminism: Critical race and gender studies. Halifax: Fernwood Press.Google Scholar
  17. Canada. (1880-1936). Annual Reports, Department of Indian Affairs. (1883, May 9 House of commons debate. 1107–1108). Ottawa: Department of Indian Affairs.Google Scholar
  18. Canada. (2008). Prime minister Harper offers full apology on behalf of Canadians for the Indian residential schools system. Retrieved October 11, 2010, from http://pm.gc.ca/eng/media.asp?id=2149
  19. Canada. (2015). Office of the Prime Minister. Mandate letter. Ottawa: Minister of Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada.Google Scholar
  20. Canada. (2016). Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada, United Nations Declaration of Rights of Indigenous Peoples. https://www.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/eng/1309374407406/1309374458958. Accessed 16 Sept 2017.
  21. Canada, Department of Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development [AANDC]. (2011). The report of the national panel on first nation elementary and secondary education for students on reserve. Government of Canada.Google Scholar
  22. Canadian Association of Deans of Education. (2010). Accord on Indigenous education. Retrieved from http://educ.ubc.ca/sites/educ.ubc.ca/les/FoE%20document_ACDE_Ac-cord_Indigenous_Education_01–12-10.pdf
  23. Canadian Council on Learning. (2007). Redefining how success is measured in First Nations, Inuit and Métis learning. Retrieved from http://eboulearning.com/ccl/RedefiningSuccess/Redefining_How_Success_Is_Measured_EN.pdf
  24. Canadian Council on Learning. (2009). The state of Aboriginal learning in Canada: A holistic approach to measuring success. Retrieved March 17, 2017, from https://www.eboulearning.com/ccl/StateAboriginalLearning/SAL-FINALReport_EN.PDF
  25. Carnoy, M. (1974). Education as cultural imperialism. New York: David McKay Company.Google Scholar
  26. Council of Ministers of Education, Canada [CMEC]. (2004). Backgrounder on the CMEC Aboriginal Education Action Plan. Retrieved from https://www.cmec.ca/Publications/Lists/Publications/Attachments/71/BackgrounderAboriginalEducation.en.pdf
  27. Council of Ministers of Education. (2008). Learn Canada 2020: Joint declaration provincial and territorial ministers of education. Ottawa: CMEC Retrieved October 11, 2010, from http://www.cmec.ca/Publications/Lists/Publications/Attachments/ 187/CMEC-2020-DECLARATION.en.pdf
  28. Dei, G. J. S., Hall, B. L., & Goldin Rosenberg, D. (Eds.). (2000). Removing the margins: The challenges and possibilities of inclusive schooling. Toronto: Canadian Scholars’ Press.Google Scholar
  29. Ermine, W. (2007). The ethical space of engagement. Indigenous Law Journal, 6(1), 193–203.Google Scholar
  30. Ermine, W., Sinclair, R., & Browne, M. (2005). Kwayask itôtamowin: Indigenous research ethics. Report of the Indigenous peoples’ health research centre to the institute of Aboriginal peoples’ health and the Canadian institutes of health research. Regina: Indigenous Peoples’ Health Research Centre.Google Scholar
  31. First Nations Child and Family Caring Society v Canada 2016 C.H.R.T. 2.Google Scholar
  32. Freire, P. (1973). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York: Seabury Press.Google Scholar
  33. Gabriel Dumont Institute of Native Studies and Applied Research. (2009). Métis education report: A special report on Métis education prepared by the Métis National Council for the summit on Aboriginal education. Retrieved November 2009, from Gabriel Dumont Institute of Native Studies and Applied Research http://www.gdins.org/documents/resources/KtMEducationReportFeb20-2009.pdf
  34. Harper, S. (2008). Prime minister Harper offers full apology on behalf of Canadians for the Indian residential schools system 11 June 2008 Ottawa. Retrieved from http://www.pm.gc.ca/eng/media.asp?id=2149
  35. Henderson, J. Y. (1995). Indian education and treaties. In M. Battiste & J. Barman (Eds.), First Nations education in Canada: The circle unfolds. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.Google Scholar
  36. Indian Residential Schools Settlement Agreement. (2007). Retrieved October 4, 2016, from http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/indian-residential-schools-settlement-agreement/
  37. Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami. (2008, April 15–17). Report on the Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami education initiative: Summary of ITK summit on Inuit education and background research. Inuvik/Ottawa: Author.Google Scholar
  38. Mi’kmaw Kina’matnewey [MK] (2016). Annual report 2015–2016. Retrieved from http://kinu.ca/sites/default/files/doc/2014/Feb/mk_annual_report_2016.pdf
  39. McLaren, P. (2015). Life in schools (6th ed.). London: Paradigm Publishers.Google Scholar
  40. Moore, M., & Deloria, V., Jr. (2003). Genocide of the mind: New Native American writing. New York: Thunder’s Mouth Press/Nation Books.Google Scholar
  41. National Indian Brotherhood (NIB). (1972). Indian control of Indian education. Policy Paper presented to the Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development. Ottawa: National Indian Brotherhood.Google Scholar
  42. Oreopoulos, P. (2005). Canadian compulsory school law and their impact on education attainment and future earning. Ottawa: Minister of Industry. Previewed 26 September 2016 http://publications.gc.ca/Collection/Statcan/11F0019MIE/11F0019MIE2005251.pdf
  43. Ouellette, R. F. (2011). Evaluating Aboriginal curricula using a Cree-Métis perspective with a regard toward Indigenous knowledge. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Laval University, Laval.Google Scholar
  44. PM Justin Trudeau Speech at UN. (9-21-17). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W7LLCFpaUqw
  45. Quinn, B. (1999). Counterpoint: An analysis of Canadian native educational academic discourse. Ph.D. thesis, Department of Education Foundations, University of Alberta, Edmonton.Google Scholar
  46. Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (RCAP). (1996). Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples. 5 vols. Ottawa: Canada Communication Group.Google Scholar
  47. R. v. Côté, [1996] 3 S.C.R. 139.Google Scholar
  48. R. v. Powley, [2003] 2 S.C.R. 207, 2003 SCC 43.Google Scholar
  49. Sharpe, A., & Arsenault, J.-F. (2009). Investing in aboriginal education in Canada: An economic perspective. Ottawa: Canadian Policy Research Networks. Retrieved 26 September 2016 http://www.cprn.org/documents/51980_EN.pdf
  50. Santos, B., Arriscado Nunes, J., & Meneses, M. P. (2007). Opening up the canon of knowledge and recognition of difference. In B. de Sousa Santos (Ed.), Another knowledge is possible: Beyond Northern epistemologies (pp. xix–lxii). New York: Verso.Google Scholar
  51. Soustelle, J. (2002). Daily life of the Aztecs: On the eve of the Spanish conquest. Mineola: Courier Dover Publications.Google Scholar
  52. St. Denis, V. (2002). Exploring the socio-cultural production of aboriginal identities: Implications for education. A Ph.D. dissertation, School of Education, Stanford University, Stanford.Google Scholar
  53. Trouillot, M.-R. (2011). Abortive rituals: Historical apologies in the global era. Interventions, 2(2), 171–186.  https://doi.org/10.1080/136980100427298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Truth and Reconciliation Commission. (2015). Calls to action. Retrieved from http://www.trc.ca/websites/trcinstitution/File/2015/Findings/Calls_to_Action_English2.pdf
  55. Truth and Reconciliation Commission. (2015c). A knock at the door: An essential history of residential schools from the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada. Winnipeg: TRC.Google Scholar
  56. Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada. (2012). Interim report. Ottawa. Retrieved from http://www.attendancemarketing.com/~attmk/TRC_jd/Interim%20re- port%20English%20electronic%20copy.pdf
  57. Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada (TRC). (2015). Honouring the truth, reconciling for the future: Summary of the final report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada. http://www.trc.ca/websites/trcinstitution/File/2015/Honouring_the_Truth_Reconciling_for_the_Future_ July_23_2015.pdf
  58. United Kingdom. (1867). Constitution act, 1867, 30 & 31 Victoria, c. 3.Google Scholar
  59. United Kingdom. (1982). Canadian charter of rights and freedoms, part I of the constitution act, 1982, being schedule B to the Canada act 1982 (UK), 1982, c. 11.Google Scholar
  60. United Nations. (2007). Declaration on the rights of Indigenous peoples UN Doc. A/61/L.67.Google Scholar
  61. Woolford, A. (2009). Ontological destruction: Genocide and Canadian Indigenous peoples. Genocide Studies and Prevention, 4(1), 81–97.Google Scholar
  62. Yellow Bird, M. (2012). Neurodecolonization: Using mindfulness practices to delete the neural networks of colonialism. In Waziyatawin & M. Yellow Bird (Eds.), For indigenous minds only: A decolonization handbook (pp. 57–84). Santa Fe: School for Advanced Research Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marie Battiste
    • 1
    Email author
  • James [Sa’ke’j] Youngblood Henderson
    • 1
  1. 1.University of SaskatchewanSaskatoonCanada

Personalised recommendations