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Glutamine Metabolism in Cancer

  • Ting Li
  • Anne Le
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1063)

Abstract

Metabolism is the fundamental process for all cellular functions. For decades, there has been growing evidence with regard to the relationship between metabolism and malignant cell proliferation. Unlike normal differentiated cells, however, cancer cells have reprogrammed metabolisms in order to fulfill their energy requirements. These cells display crucial modifications in many metabolic pathways, including glucose transport, glutaminolysis which includes the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, the electron transport chain (ETC), and the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) [1]. Since the discovery of the Warburg effect, it has been shown that the metabolism of cancer cells plays a critical role in cancer survival and growth. More recent research suggests that the involvement of glutamine in cancer metabolism is more significant than previously thought. Glutamine, a non essential amino acid with an amine functional group, is the most abundant amino acid circulating in the bloodstream [2]. This chapter will discuss the characteristic features of glutamine metabolism in cancers.

Keywords

Glutamine metabolism Glutamine addiction Targeting glutamine metabolism Transaminase upregulation Targeting amino acid synthesis 

Abbreviations

α-KG

α-Ketoglutarate

2HG

2-Hydroxyglutaric acid

ASS

Argininosuccinate synthetase

ECG

Epicatechin gallate

EGCG

Epigallocatechin gallate

ETC

Electron transport chain

FDG-PET

Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography

FH

Fumarate hydratase

GBM

Glioblastoma multiforme

GDH

Glutamate dehydrogenase

GLS

Glutaminase

GOT

Glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase

GPT

Glutamic-pyruvate transaminase

HIF

Hypoxia-inducible factor

IDH

Isocitrate dehydrogenase

IDO

Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase

PEG

Poly(ethylene glycol)

PHD

Prolyl 4-hydroxylases

PLGA

Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)

PSAT

Phosphoserine aminotransferase

RCC

Renal cell carcinomas

SDH

Succinate dehydrogenase

SHMT

Serine hydroxymethyltransferase

TCA

Tricarboxylic acid

TDO

Tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyCambridgeUSA
  2. 2.Department of Pathology and OncologyJohns Hopkins University School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA

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