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Glucose Metabolism in Cancer

Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1063)

Abstract

Otto Warburg observed a peculiar phenomenon in 1924, unknowingly laying the foundation for the field of cancer metabolism. While his contemporaries hypothesized that tumor cells derived the energy required for uncontrolled replication from proteolysis and lipolysis, Warburg instead found them to rapidly consume glucose, converting it to lactate [1]. The significance of this finding, later termed the Warburg effect, went unnoticed by the larger scientific community at that time. The field of cancer metabolism lay dormant for almost a century awaiting advances in molecular biology and genetics which would later open the doors to new cancer therapies.

Keywords

Glucose metabolism Warburg effect Glycogenolysis Gluconeogenesis Cancer metabolism 

Abbreviations

3PO

3-(3-Pyridinyl)-1-(4-pyridinyl)-2-propen-1-one

AGL

Amylo-alpha-1, 6-glucosidase, 4-alpha-glucanotransferase

AKT

Also known as PKB, protein kinase B

ATP

Adenosine triphosphate

CP-320626

5-Chloro-N-[(2S)-3-(4-fluorophenyl)-1-(4-hydroxypiperidin-1-yl)-1-oxopropan-2-yl]-1H-indole-2-carboxamide

F1,6-BP

Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase

F2,6-BP

Fructose-2,6-bisphosphate

FX-11

3-Dihydroxy-6-methyl-7-phenylmethyl-4-propylnaphthalene-1-carboxylic acid

G1P

Glucose-1-phosphate

G6P

Glucose-6-phosphate

GBE

1,4-Alpha-glucan branching enzyme

GLUT

Glucose transporter

GSK2

Glycogen synthase kinase 2

GYS1

Glycogen synthase 1

HIF-1α

Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α

HK2

Hexokinase 2

LDHA

Lactate dehydrogenase A

mTOR

Mechanistic target of rapamycin

NAD

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

PCK2

Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 2

PCK1

Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1

PFK

Phosphofructokinase

PFKFB3

6-Phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-biphosphatase 3

PGM

Phosphoglucomutase

PI3K

Phosphoinositide 3-kinase

PPP

Pentose phosphate pathway

PPP1R3C

Protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 3C

TCA

Tricarboxylic acid

TIGAR

TP53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator

TP53

Tumor protein 53

UGP2

UTP:glucose-1-P uridylyltransferase 2

VHL

Von Hippel-Lindau

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of MedicineColumbia University Medical CenterNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Department of Pathology and OncologyJohns Hopkins University School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA

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