Enzyme Immunoassay (EIAs) and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)

  • Rowa Yousef Alhabbab
Part of the Techniques in Life Science and Biomedicine for the Non-Expert book series (TLSBNE)


The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a technique that can detect and quantify antigens or antibodies of interest in patient serum with high sensitivity and accuracy. ELISA is cost-effective; therefore, it is widely used in clinical and research laboratories. This chapter introduces the principles of the different types of ELISA, the reagents, and steps, and the most common method of interpreting the results.


ELISA Direct ELISA Indirect ELISA Sandwich ELISA Competitive ELISA Substrate Enzyme 


  1. 1.
    Engvall E, Perlmann P. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Quantitative assay of immunoglobulin G. Immunochemistry. 1971;8(9):871–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Grange RD, Thompson JP, Lambert DG. Radioimmunoassay, enzyme and non-enzyme-based immunoassays. Br J Anaesth. 2014;112(2):213–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Van Weemen BK, Schuurs AH. Immunoassay using antibody—enzyme conjugates. FEBS Lett. 1974;43(2):215–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bhandari SS, Davies JE, Struck J, Ng LL. Influence of confounding factors on plasma mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin and mid-regional pro-A-type natriuretic peptide concentrations in healthy individuals. Biomarkers. 2011;16(3):281–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bioss Antibodies. Direct ELISA protocol. Shopify. Available from: Accessed 16 September 2017.
  6. 6.
    Abcam discover more. Indirect ELISA Protocol. Abcam. 2016. Available from: Accessed 16 September 2017.
  7. 7.
    Abcam discover more. Sandwich ELISA Protocol. Abcam. 2016. Available from: Accessed 16 September 2017.
  8. 8.
    Abcam. Calculating and Evaluating ELISA Data. Abcam. 2016. Available from: Accessed 17 September 2017

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rowa Yousef Alhabbab
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Applied Medical Sciences and Infectious Disease UnitKing Fahad Centre for Medical Research, King Abdulaziz UniversityJeddahSaudi Arabia

Personalised recommendations