Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Primary Immunodeficiencies

  • Abdul Aziz ElkadriEmail author
  • Aleixo Muise

As the list of defined gene defects associated with primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID) grows, our understanding of the spectrum of phenotypes associated with these genetic defects grows too. One phenotype that is prevalent in a number of primary immunodeficiencies is the involvement of the gastrointestinal tract. This should not come as a surprise, as the bowel is the interface between the self and the outside world. It also hosts a large number of bacteria and viruses. Some estimates place the ratio of bacterial to human cells at 10:1 [1]. Yet bacteria are to a large extent tolerated in situations of normal health. As well, ingested foods in various states of digestion are also tolerated in healthy individuals with no systemic immune response.


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Medical College of WisconsinMilwaukeeUSA
  2. 2.The Hospital for Sick Children, Inflammatory Bowel Disease CenterTorontoCanada

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