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Infections in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients

  • Nikolaos G. Almyroudis
Chapter

Abstract

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a well-established therapy for a number of hematologic malignancies and disorders. Infections after allogeneic HSCT occur during three well-defined time periods. The pre-engraftment period is dominated by neutropenia, compromised mucosal immunity as a result of preparative chemotherapy, and compromised skin barrier as a result of vascular access. The early post-engraftment period is characterized by impaired cell-mediated immunity due to immunosuppression and acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) and its treatments. Infections during the late post-engraftment period are the result of impaired cell- and humoral-mediated immunity. The degree of HLA disparity between donor and recipient correlates with the risk of infectious complications. The risk is greater for recipients who use alternative sources of stem cells such as unrelated donors, cord blood stem cells, or haploidentical donors. In addition to immunosuppressive therapy, in vitro or in vivo manipulation of the graft to prevent GvHD may lead to a greater risk of infections. Although HSCT is associated with profound immune defects, appropriate prophylactic and treatment strategies decrease significantly the infection-related morbidity and mortality.

Keywords

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation Bacterial infections Fungal infections Viral infections 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, Division of Infectious Diseases, Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer CenterBuffaloUSA

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