Eco-Phenomenology: Philosophical Sources and Main Concepts
Eco-phenomenology is a new developing trend, but its roots can be traced to philosophia naturalis (life philosophy), the philosophies of Schelling, Nietzsche, Bergson, Husserl, Merleau-Ponty, and other philosophers. The ecological turn in phenomenology is prompted by authors dealing with the problems of the human being – nature, life, the Universe. Eco-phenomenology and eco-philosophy are different teachings, eco-phenomenology being more theoretically fundamental while eco-philosophy until now more politically oriented. Eco-phenomenology appeals to us to look “Back to the Earth itself,” but that it is not enough to solve the question of the nature of nature and to recognize the meaning of natural reality in phenomenology. The basic issues for eco-phenomenology can be found in A.-T. Tymieniecka’s phenomenology of life. Her teaching actually is eco-phenomenology developed in a systematic way with new concepts. Many concepts of her phenomenology of life can be cornerstones for eco-phenomenology: Logos and life, the Unity-of-Everything-there-is-Alive, ontopoiesis, the individualization of life, and imaginatio creatrix. Here are offered additional eco-phenomenological concepts which could be termed the fundamental phenomena unifying the world’s natural, human, cultural and symbolic dimensions – light, rhythm, silence, place.
KeywordsEco-phenomenology Eco-philosophy Phenomenology of life Tymieniecka Logos Fundamental phenomena
- Abram, David. 1997. The Spell of the Sensuous: Perception and Language in a More-than-Human-World. New York: First Vintage Books Edition. Print.Google Scholar
- Brown, Charles S., and Ted Toadvine, eds. 2003. Eco-Phenomenology. Back to the Earth Itself. Albany: State University of New York Press. Print.Google Scholar
- “Ecophilosophy.” 2015. Powerpoint. www.creeca.wisc.edu/outreach/.../ecophilosophy.ppt Web. March 1, 2015.
- Næss, Arne, and P.I. Heukelands. 2001. Dzīves filosofija. Rīga: Norden. Print.Google Scholar
- Tønnessen, Morten. 2011. Uexküllian Phenomenology. Retrieving Geo-cosmic Horizons of Antiquity, Logos and Life. In Phenomenology/Ontopoiesis Retrieving Geo-Cosmic Horizons of Antiquity, Part 1, Analecta Husserliana CX, ed. Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka. Dordrecht: Springer. Print.Google Scholar
- Tymieniecka, Anna Teresa. 1988a. Logos and Life. Book 1, Creative Experience and the Critique of Reason, Analecta Husserliana XXIV. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
- ———. 1990a. Logos and Life. Book 3, The Passions of the Soul and the Elements in the Onto-Poiesis of Culture, Analecta Husserliana XXVIII. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
- ———. 1990b. The Human Condition Within the Unity-Of-Everything-There-is-Alive. A Challenge to Philosophical Anthropologies. In The Moral Sense and Its Foundational Significance, Analecta Husserliana XXXI, ed. Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
- ———. 2007. Creative Imagination in the Converting of Life’s Sensibilities into Full Human Experience. In Phenomenology of Life – from the Animal Soul to the Human Mind, book 2: The Human Soul in the Creative Transformation of the Mind, Analecta Husserliana XCIV, ed. Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka. Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- ———. 2009. An Interview with Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka. Phenomenological Inquiry 33. Web May 15, 2014. http://www.phenomenology.org/Bergen-Interview.htm
- Viik, Tönu. 2013. The Cosmic Matrix: Revisiting the Notion of the World Horizon. In Phenomenology and the Human Positioning in the Cosmos, book 2, Analecta Husserliana CXIV, ed. Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka, 53–66. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar