‘Manipulation’ is a word capable of being interpreted in different ways, and the scope of this volume is therefore wide, with contributors defining the problem more or less narrowly than each other. But common to all is the understanding that manipulation involves some deviation from an idealised view of sport such that ‘the spirit of sport’ is compromised to enable one or more stakeholders to make personal or corporate gain. Organised sport of course likes to project itself in terms of its guardianship of an innocent world underpinned by the values which comprise that ‘spirit of sport’. For example, the World Anti-Doping Agency, (2015, p. 14) provides the rationale for its existence as being to ‘preserve what is intrinsically valuable in sport’, citing values such as ‘ethics, fair play and honesty’, ‘health’, ‘fun and joy’ and ‘respect for rules and laws’. Indeed, Lapham (Money and class in America: Notes and observations on a Civil religion. Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London, p. 151, 1988) argued that the projection of the sense of an innocent world is an essential part of the business of sport since it is so much part of the reason for love of sport. That of course presents a paradox. To an extent, sports businesses depend for their success on the population maintaining a belief in the spirit of sport; but their attempts to gain profit from sport may themselves be perceived as undermining traditional sporting values.
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