Ground Based Real Time Monitoring System Using Wireless Instrumentation for Landslide Prediction

  • D. P. Kanungo
Part of the Advances in Natural and Technological Hazards Research book series (NTHR, volume 50)


Despite of our increasing knowledge on the subject, the damage tolls due to landslides are on rise during monsoon in hilly terrain. Hence, landslide prediction on temporal scale is a viable option for risk reduction. Prediction of shallow landslides developing rainfall thresholds using information on landslide occurrences and precipitation will be a cost effective risk reduction measure and may be applicable at a regional/catchment/district/tehsil/village/road corridor level in hilly terrain. Further, the installation of a real-time monitoring system can also be an alternate effective risk mitigation measure for perennial severe landslides and will be useful for community and traffic control on roads and railway tracks in hilly terrain. A Landslide Observatory with wireless instrumentation for real time monitoring of ground deformation and hydrologic parameters has been established at Pakhi Landslide in Garhwal Himalayas, India. The measurement sensors include in-place inclinometers (IPI), piezometers, wire-line extensometers and an automatic weather station (AWS). The real time data is being monitored to establish warning thresholds. The annual cumulative rainfall during 2015 was 1388 mm with cumulative monsoon period (June to September 2015) rainfall of 825 mm. At the crown of landslide beyond main scarp, there is negligible displacement being the stable part. Within the main body of the landslide, it could be inferred that the colluvium, greatly weathered bedrock and their interface experience somehow greater extent of movement at different depths in comparison to the interface between greatly weathered bedrock and unweathered bedrock. A correlation between higher intensity rainfall events and displacement pattern across the inclinometer sensors is also witnessed. However, these inferences can only be established with further data analysis of later periods. The principal aim of this chapter is to discuss the processes involved in establishment of a ground based real time monitoring system for landslides in hilly regions, in particular Indian Himalayas. Apart from establishing a landslide observatory in one of the severe landslide, the data acquisition and analysis for one monsoon season is also discussed.



Authors are grateful to the Director, CSIR-Central Building Research Institute, Roorkee, Uttarakhand (India) for granting permission to publish this paper.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. P. Kanungo
    • 1
  1. 1.Geotechnical Engineering DivisionCSIR-Central Building Research InstituteRoorkeeIndia

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