Advertisement

Active Faulting in the Earth’s Crust of the Baikal Rift System Based on the Earthquake Focal Mechanisms

  • Vladimir A. Sankov
  • Anna A. Dobrynina
Chapter
Part of the Springer Natural Hazards book series (SPRINGERNAT)

Abstract

The destruction of the lithosphere with the formation of fault zones is one of the leading geological processes determining the structure of the continents, both in the past and at the present stage. Seismicity providing information on the structure and dynamics of formation of large fault zones in real time reflects the modern fault formation in the crust. For its study, both the epicentral field of earthquakes (see, for example, Sherman 2009) and the data on the position of their hypocenters are actively used (see, for example, Kaven and Polland 2013). To determine the orientation of modern faults of various orders, one can also use data on the earthquake focal mechanism solutions preliminarily distinguishing the true fault planes in the source. In the case of strong earthquakes, the geological data (the outcrop of the fault on the surface, the existing of faults with similar geometry, etc.), the data on the orientation of the aftershock field, the shape of the first isoseits, and other data are indirect features that help to choose one plane or another as the true fault plane. These approaches are inapplicable in study of weak earthquakes (magnitude M ≤ 4.0) and the only information available on them is concerned with their waveforms.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The reported study was funded by RFBR according to the research project № 17-05-00826.

References

  1. Angelier J (1989) Inversion of filed data in fault tectonics to obtain the regional stress II. Using conjugate fault sets within heterogeneous families for computing palaeostress axes. Geophys J 96:139–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barth A, Wenzel F (2009) New constraints on the intraplate stress field of the Amurian plate deduced from light earthquake focal mechanisms. Tectonophysics.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2009.01.029
  3. Benioff H, Press F, Smith S (1961) Excitation of the free oscillations of the earth by earthquakes. J. Geophys Res 66:605–618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ben-Menahem A (1961) Radiation of seismic surface-waves from finite moving sources. Bull Seismol Soc Am 51:401–435Google Scholar
  5. Bouchon M, Toksoz MN, Karabulut H et al (2002) Space and time evolution of rupture and faulting during the 1999 Izmit (Turkey) earthquake. Bull Seismol Soc Am 92:256–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Calais E, Vergnolle M, San’kov V, Lukhnev A, Miroshnitchenko A, Amarjargal S, Déverchère J (2003) GPS measurements of crustal deformation in the Baikal-Mongolia area (1994–2002: Implications for current kinematics of Asia). J Geophys Res 108(B10).  https://doi.org/10.1029/2002jb002373
  7. Chipizubov AV, Smekalin OP, Semenov RM, Imaev VS (2010) Paleoseismicity of the Pribaikalie. Seism Instr 46:136.  https://doi.org/10.3103/S0747923910020040CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Delouis B, Deverchere J, Melnikova V et al (2002) A reappraisal of the 1950 (Mw 6. 9) Mondy earthquake, Siberia, and its relationship to the strain pattern at the south–western end of the Baikal rift zone. Terra Nova 6:491–500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Delvaux D, Moyes R, Stapel G, Petit C, Levi K, Miroshnitchenko A, Ruzhich V, Sankov V (1997) Paleostress reconstruction and geodynamics of the Baikal region, Central Asia. Part II: Cenozoic rifting. Tectonophysics 282:1–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Déverchère J, Houdry F, Diament M, Solonenko NV, Solonenko AV (1991) Evidence for a seismogenic upper mantle and lower crust in the Baikal rift. Geophys Res Lett 18(6):1099–1102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dobrynina AA (2015) Focal mechanisms of the North Baikal earthquakes. In: XXI All-Russia youth conference “Lithosphere structure and Geodynamics”, Irkutsk, Russia, pp 245–246 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  12. Dobrynina AA, Sankov VA (2010) Rupture velocities and propagations in sources of Baikal rift system’s earthquakes. Geophys Invest 11(2):52–61 (in Russian with English abstract)Google Scholar
  13. Doser DI (1991) Faulting within the western Baikal rift as characterized by earthquake studies. Tectonophysics 196:87–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fukao Y (1972) Source process of a large deep—focus earthquakes and its tectonic implications. Earth Planet Int 5:61–76Google Scholar
  15. Gephart JW, Forsyth DW (1984) An improved method for determining the regional stress tensor using earthquake focal mechanism data: application to the San Fernando earthquake sequence. J Geophys Res 89(B11):9305–9320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gorbunova IV, Kalmet’eva Z (1988) Experimental characteristics of weak earthquake radiation. Ilim, Frunze, 129 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  17. Gushchenko OI (1979) The method of the kinematic analysis of structures of destruction at reconstruction of fields of tectonic stresses. In: Fields of stress a lithosphere. Nauka, Moscow, pp 7–25 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  18. Gushchenko OI, Kuznetsov VA (1979) Determination of the orientations and the ratio of principal stresses on the basin of tectonic fault slip data. In: Stress fields in the lithosphere. Nauka, Moscow, pp 60–66 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  19. Heidbach O, Tingay M, Barth A, Reinecker J, Kurfeß D, Muller B (2010) Global crustal stress pattern based on the World Stress Map database release. Tectonophysics 482(1–4):3–15.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2009.07.023CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. International Seismological Centre (2014) On-line Bulletin. International Seismological Centre, Thatcham, United Kingdom. http://www.isc.ac.uk
  21. Isaks BL, Sykes LR, Oliver J (1967) Spatial and temporal clustering of deep and shallow earthquakes in the Fiji–Tonga–Kermadec region. Bull Seismol Soc Am 57:935–958Google Scholar
  22. Jolivet M, Arzhannikov S, Chauvet A, Arzhannikova A, Vassallo R, Kulagina N, Akulova V (2013) Accomodating largescale intracontinental extension and compression in a single stress-field: a key example from the Baikal Rift System. Gondwana Res 24:918–925CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kaven JO, Polland DD (2013) Geometry of crustal faults: identification from seismicity and implications for slip and stress transfer models. J Geophys Res Solid Earth 118.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jgrb.50356
  24. Khattri KN (1969) Determination of the earthquake fault plane, fault area and rupture velocity from spectra of long period P waves and the amplitude of SH waves. Bull Seismol Soc Am 59:615–630Google Scholar
  25. Kikuchi M, Kanamori H (2003) Note on teleseismic body—wave inversion program. http://www.eri.u-tokyo.ac.Jp/ETAL/KIKUCHI
  26. Kondorskaya N, Shebalin N (eds) (1982) New catalogue of strong earthquakes in the USSR. World Data Centre A, US Department of Commerce, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  27. Kuchai OA (1990) Features of seismotectonic deformation of Lake. Baikal and its mountain frame. Research on the creation of scientific foundations for the forecast of earthquakes in Siberia. Operative information. IK SB RAS, Irkutsk, pp 17–22 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  28. Levi KG, Miroshnitchenko AI, San’kov VA, Babushkin SM, Larkin GV, Badardinov AA, Wong HK, Colman S, Delvaux D (1997) Active faults of the Baikal depression. Bull Centre Rech Elf Explor Prod 21(2):399–434Google Scholar
  29. Logatchev NA (1993) History and geodynamics of the Lake Baikal rift in the context of the Eastern Siberia rift system: a review. Bull Cent Rech Explor Prod Elf Aquitaine 17(2):353–370Google Scholar
  30. Logatchev NA, Florensov NA (1978) The Baikal system of rift valleys. Tectonophysics 45:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. McCalpin JP, Khromovskikh VS (1995) Holocene paleoseismicity of the Tunka fault, Baikal rift Russia. Tectonics 14(3):594–605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Melnikova VI, Radziminovich NA (1998) Focal mechanisms of the earthquakes of the Baikal region for 1991–1996. Russ Geol Geophys 39(11):1598–1607Google Scholar
  33. Melnikova VI, Radziminovich NA (2003) Baikal and Transbaikalie (IV. Earthquake focal mechanisms catalog). Earthquakes of the Northern Eurasia in 1997. FOP, Obninsk, 280 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  34. Melnikova VI, Radziminovich NA (2004) Baikal and Transbaikalie (IV. Earthquakes focal mechanism catalog). Earthquakes of the Northern Eurasia in 1998.FOP, Obninsk, 268 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  35. Melnikova VI, Radziminovich NA (2007) Parameters of seismotectonic deformations of the Earth’s crust in the Baikal rift zone based on seismological data. Dokl Earth Sci 416:1137–1139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Melnikova VI, Radziminovich NA, Tatomir NV, Dobrynina AA (2006) Baikal and Transbaikalie (IV. Earthquakes focal mechanism catalog). Earthquakes of the Northern Eurasia in 2000. FOP, Obninsk, 376 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  37. Melnikova VI, Radziminovich NA, Gileva NA, Chipizubov AV, Dobrynina AA (2007) Activation of rifting processes in the Northern Cis-Baikal region: a case study of the Kichera earthquake sequence of 1999, Izvestiya. Phys Solid Earth 43(11):905–921CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Melnikova VI, Radziminovich NA, Tatomir NV, Dobrynina AA (2008) Baikal and Transbaikalie (IV. Earthquake focal mechanisms catalog). Earthquakes of the Northern Eurasia in 2002. FOP, Obninsk, 428 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  39. Melnikova VI, Gileva NA, Arefiev SS, Bykova VV, Masalskii OK (2012) The 2008 Kultuk earthquake with Mw = 6.3 in the south of Baikal: spatial-temporal analysis of seismic activation. Izvestiya, Phys Solid Earth 48(7–8):594–614. http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/s1069351312060031
  40. Melnikova VI, Gilyova NA, Masalsky OK (2013) Baikal and Transbaikalia. Earthquakes of the Northern Eurasia, 2007. GS of the RAS, Obninsk, pp 160–169 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  41. Misharina LA (1961) Aftershocks of the middle Baikal earthquake of August 29, 1959. Russ Geol Geophys 2:105–110 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  42. Misharina LA (1969) Investigation of the focal mechanism of weak earthquakes in the northeastern sector of the Baikal rift. In: Proceedings of the third all-union symposium on the seismic regime, Part I, pp 147–166 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  43. Misharina LA, Solonenko NV (1981) The focal mechanism of earthquakes in the southwestern flank of the Baikal rift zone. In: Seismic studies in Eastern Siberia, Nauka, pp 3–11 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  44. Misharina LA, Solonenko NV, Leontyeva LR (1975) Local tectonic stresses in the Baikal rift zone from observations of groups of weak earthquakes. Baikal Rift. Nauka, Novosibirsk, pp 9–21 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  45. Misharina LA, Solonenko NV, Vertlib MB (1977) Some features of the epicentral field of the Baikal rift zone in comparison with the focal mechanism of earthquakes. In: Seismicity and seismogeology of Eastern Siberia. Nauka, Moscow, pp 43–61 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  46. Misharina LA, Solonenko AV, Melnikova VI, Solonenko NV (1985) Stresses and faults in earthquake foci. In: Solov’ev SL (ed) Geology and seismicity of the BAM zone. Nauka, Siberian Branch, Novosibirsk, 192 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  47. Moskvina AG (1971) On the possibility of determining certain characteristics of the earthquake focus from the spectra of body waves. Phys Earth 111(11) (in Russian)Google Scholar
  48. Moskvina AG (1990) Use of the Doppler effect to determine the parameters of the earthquake source. Phys Earth 1:35–45 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  49. Nikitin LV, Yunga SL (1977) Methods of theoretical determination of tectonic deformation and stress in seismically active areas. Izvestia USSR. Phys Earth 11:54–67 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  50. Parfeevets AV, Sankov VA, Miroshnichenko AI, Luhnev AV (2002) Evolution of the stress state of the Earth’s crust of the Mongolian-Baikal mobile belt. Pac Geol 21:14–28 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  51. Petit C, Déverchère J, Houdry F, Sankov VA, Melnikova VI, Delvaux D (1996) Present-day stress field changes along the Baikal rift and tectonic implications. Tectonics 15:1171–1191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Pavlov OV (ed) (1987) The Angarakansky seismic swarm in the Baikal rift zone. Nauka, Novosibirsk, 81 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  53. Pogorazdova SV (ed) (1989) Map of modern vertical movements of the Earth’s crust according to geodetic data on the territory of the USSR, scale 1: 5000000. Factory No. 11 PA “Azerbaijanerogeodesiya” GUSK USSR, Baku (in Russian)Google Scholar
  54. Radziminovich NA (2010) Focal depths of earthquakes in the Baikal region: a review. Izvestiya Phys Solid Earth 46(3):216–229.  https://doi.org/10.1134/S1069351310030043CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Radziminovich N, Deverchere J, Melnikova V et al (2005) The 1999 Mw 6. 0 earthquake sequence in the Southern Baikal rift, Asia, and its seismotectonic implications. Geophys J Int 161:387–400Google Scholar
  56. Radziminovich NA, Gileva NA, Radziminovich YaB, Kustova MG, Chechelnitskii VV, Melnikova VI (2009) The 2003 September 16 Kumora Earthquake with Mw = 5.6, KR = 14.3 and I0 = 7. Earthquakes of the Northern Eurasia in 2003, Obninsk, Geophysical Survey of RAS, pp 293–309 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  57. Radziminovich NA, Melnikova VI, Tatomir NV, Dobrynina AA (2009) VII. Catalogs of focal mechanism solutions. Earthquakes of the Northern Eurasia in 2003, Obninsk, Geophysical Survey of RAS, pp 293–309 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  58. Radziminovich NA, Gileva NA, Melnikova VI, Ochkovskaya MG (2013) Seismicity of the Baikal rift system from regional network observations. J Asian Earth Sci 62:146–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Rebetsky YL (2007) Tectonic stresses and strength of natural mountain massifs, p 406. Moscow: AkademknigaGoogle Scholar
  60. Rebetsky YuL, Kuchai OA, Sycheva NA, Tatevossian RE (2012) Development of inversion methods on fault slip data. Stress state in orogenes of the Central Asia. Tectonophysics 581:114–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Ryan WBF, Carbotte SM, Coplan JO, O’Hara S, Melkonian A, Arko R, Weissel RA, Ferrini V, Goodwillie A, Nitsche F, Bonczkowski J, Zemsky R (2009) Global multi-resolution topography synthesis. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 10:Q03014.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2008gc002332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. San’kov VA, Dobrynina AA (2009) Active ruptures in the earth’s crust of the Baikal rift system at the level of the earthquake focal layer. In: Sklyarova EV (ed) Geodynamic evolution of the lithosphere of the Central Asian mobile belt (from the ocean to the continent): proceedings of the meeting, T 2, no 7. IEC SB RAS, Irkutsk, pp 67–70 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  63. San’kov VA, Miroshnitchenko AI, Levi KG, Lukhnev AV, Melnikova AI, Delvaux D (1997) Cenozoic stress field evolution in the Baikal rift zone. Bull Centre Rech Elf Explor Prod Elf Aquitaine 21(2):435–455Google Scholar
  64. San’kov V, Déverchère J, Gaudemer Y, Houdry F, Filippov A (2000) Geometry and rate of faulting in the North Baikal Rift, Siberia. Tectonics 19:707–722CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. San’kov VA, Lukhnev AV, Miroshnichenko AI, Ashurkov SV, Byzov LM, Calais E, Déverchère J (2009) Extension in the Baikal rift: present-day kinematics of passive rifting. Doklady Earth Sci 425:205–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Sherman SI (2009) Tectonophysical model of the seismic zone: experience of development on the example of the Baikal rift system. Phys Earth 11:8–21 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  67. Sherman SI, Dneprovsky YuI (1989) The field stresses of the earth’s crust and the geological-structural methods of their study. Nauka Publ House, Siberian Branch, Novosibirsk (in Russian)Google Scholar
  68. Solonenko VP (ed) (1977) Seismic zoning of the East Siberia and its geology and geophysics base. Nauka, Novosibirsk (in Russian)Google Scholar
  69. Solonenko VP (ed) (1981) Seismogeology and detailed seismic zoning of the Baikal region. Nauka, Novosibirsk, 169 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  70. Solonenko VP, Florensov NA (eds) (1985) Earthquakes and seismic hazard mapping basements of Mongolia. Nauka, Moscow, 224 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  71. Solonenko NV, Solonenko AV (1987) Aftershock sequences and earthquake swarms in the Baikal rift zone. Nauka, Novosibirsk (in Russian)Google Scholar
  72. Solonenko VP, Treskov AA, Kurushin RA et al (1966) Living tectonics, volcanoes and seismicity of the Stanovoi Upland. Nauka, Moscow, 231 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  73. Solonenko AV, Solonenko NV, Melnikova VI, Kozmin BM, Kuchai OA, Sukhanova SS (1993) Strains and displacements in earthquake foci of Siberia and Mongolia. In: Seismicity and seismic zoning of Northern Eurasia, Moscow, vol 1, pp 113–122 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  74. Solonenko A, Solonenko N, Melnikova V, Shteiman E (1997) The seismicity and earthquake focal mechanisms of the Baikal rift zone. Bull Centre Rech Elf Explor Prod 21:207–231Google Scholar
  75. Suvorov DB, Tubanov TsA (2008) Distribution of sources of close earthquakes in the crust beneath the Central Baikal. Russ Geol Geophys 49(8):611–620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Warren LM (2014) Dominant fault plane orientations of intermediate-depth earthquakes beneath South America. J Geophys Res Solid Earth 119:5762–5785.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2013JB010856CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of the Earth’s Crust of Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of SciencesIrkutskRussia
  2. 2.Irkutsk State UniversityIrkutskRussia
  3. 3.Geological Institute of Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of SciencesUlan-UdeRussia

Personalised recommendations