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Craniofacial Fracture Symptoms

  • Nicolas Hardt
  • Peter Kessler
Chapter

Abstract

Apart from the classical midface fracture signs, there are certain (direct) and uncertain (indirect) clinical symptoms indicating additional skull base fractures. Liquorrhea, clinically visible bony prolapse, dislocated bony fragments and intracranial air (CCT) or dislocated skull base fragments (CCT) indicate skull base fractures with dural laceration (Hausamen and Schmelzeisen 1996; Messerklinger and Naumann 1995; Joos et al. 2001).

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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Clinic of Cranio-Maxillofacial SurgeryLuzerner KantonsspitalLuzernSwitzerland
  2. 2.Clinic of Cranio-Maxillofacial SurgeryMaastricht University Medical CenterMaastrichtNetherlands

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