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Other Major and Mild Neurocognitive Disorders: Parkinson Disease, Atypical Parkinsonism, and Traumatic Brain Injury Types

  • Ana Hategan
  • James A. Bourgeois
  • Tracy Cheng
  • Julie Young
Chapter

Abstract

Although Parkinson disease has long been considered predominantly a motor disease, it is often associated with cognitive and other neuropsychiatric symptoms, which contribute significantly to the morbidity and mortality of patients with this condition. Major or mild neurocognitive disorder due to Parkinson disease has a unique clinical profile and neuropathology, distinct from the neurocognitive disorder due to Alzheimer disease. However, a variety of neurological disorders can present with atypical parkinsonism, in which symptoms are caused not only by cell loss in the substantia nigra (the brain area most affected in Parkinson disease) but also by degeneration of cells in other brain regions that normally contain dopamine receptors (e.g., striatum). They can present with symptoms and signs similar to Parkinson disease, including resting tremor, slowed movement, rigidity, gait difficulty, and postural instability, but in addition have symptoms and signs that are not typically present in Parkinson disease. Forms of atypical parkinsonism that have been associated with neurocognitive disorder include progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, multiple system atrophy, and vascular parkinsonism. Neurocognitive disorder with Lewy bodies is often included in this group of atypical parkinsonian syndromes (discussed elsewhere in more detail). Another etiology presented in this section is traumatic brain injury, in which the brain injury is associated with cognitive impairment occurring within the appropriate time period. This review outlines the clinical diagnostic criteria, differential diagnosis, and management for these types of neurocognitive disorders.

Keywords

Major or mild neurocognitive disorder due to Parkinson disease Parkinson disease dementia Atypical parkinsonism Progressive supranuclear palsy Multiple system atrophy Corticobasal degeneration Lewy body disease Traumatic brain injury 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ana Hategan
    • 1
  • James A. Bourgeois
    • 2
    • 3
  • Tracy Cheng
    • 4
  • Julie Young
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural NeurosciencesMcMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada
  2. 2.Department of PsychiatryBaylor Scott and White Health Central Texas DivisionDallasUSA
  3. 3.Department of PsychiatryTexas A&M University Health Science Center, College of MedicineTempleCanada
  4. 4.St. Joseph’s Healthcare Hamilton, McMaster UniversityHamiltonUSA
  5. 5.Mercy San Juan Medical CenterFarmingtonUSA

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