The European Roma and Their Securitization: Contexts, Junctures, Challenges

  • Huub van BaarEmail author
  • Ana Ivasiuc
  • Regina Kreide
Part of the Human Rights Interventions book series (HURIIN)


Constructed and represented as a threat, whether in the context of their intra-EU migration or their over-representation as beneficiaries of welfare and development programmes in times of neoliberalization, the Roma are increasingly governed through security policies in Europe. After a brief incursion into the theorization of securitization in critical security studies, van Baar, Ivasiuc, and Kreide chart the theoretical and empirical intersections between securitization and mobility, marketization, development, and visuality, to depict the complex situation of Roma minorities in Europe and the challenges they face in the current sociopolitical landscape. As the chapters of this volume demonstrate, the Roma are increasingly excluded through particular border, citizenship, market, development, and visual regimes, yet they increasingly seek ways to exert their agency and challenge their securitization.


  1. Amoore, L. 2007. Vigilant Visualities. Security Dialogue 38 (2): 215–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aradau, C. 2004. Security and the Democratic Scene. Journal of International Relations and Development 7 (4): 388–413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aradau, C., et al. 2013. Mobility Interrogating Free Movement? In Enacting European Citizenship, ed. E. Isin and M. Saward, 132–154. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Austin, J.L., and P. Beaulieu-Brossard. 2018. (De)Securitization Dilemmas. Review of International Studies 44 (2): 301–323.Google Scholar
  5. Balzacq, T., ed. 2011. Securitization Theory. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  6. Bigo, D., and E. Guild, eds. 2005. Controlling Frontiers. Farnham: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  7. Bigo, D., et al., eds. 2010. Europe’s 21st Century Challenge. Farnham: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  8. Bigo, D., S. Carrera, and E. Guild, eds. 2013. Foreigners, Refugees or Minorities? Farnham: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  9. Bogdal, M. 2011. Europa erfindet die Zigeuner. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp.Google Scholar
  10. Bojadžijev, M., and K. Karakayalı. 2007. Autonomie der Migration. In Turbulente Ränder, ed. Transit Migration Forschungsgruppe, 203–209. Bielefeld: Transcript.Google Scholar
  11. Brenner, N., J. Peck, and N. Theodore. 2010. After Neoliberalization? Globalizations 7 (3): 327–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brown, W. 2003. Neoliberalism and the End of Liberal Democracy. Theory and Event 7 (1): 1–43.Google Scholar
  13. Buzan, B., O. Waever, and J. De Wilde. 1998. Security: A New Framework for Analysis. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.Google Scholar
  14. Çağlar, A., and S. Mehling. 2013. Sites and Scales of the Law. In Enacting European Citizenship, ed. E. Isin and M. Saward, 155–177. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chakrabarty, D. 2000. Provincializing Europe. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Chelcea, L., and O. Druță. 2016. Zombie Socialism and the Rise of Neoliberalism in Post-Socialist Central and Eastern Europe. Eurasian Geography and Economics 57 (4–5): 521–544.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. De Genova, N., ed. 2017. The Borders of ‘Europe’: Autonomy of Migration, Tactics of Bordering. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Duffield, M. 2007. Development, Security and Unending War. Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
  19. Escobar, A. 1995. Encountering Development. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Fassin, D. 2007. Humanitarianism as a Politics of Life. Public Culture 19 (3): 499–520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Foucault, M. 2008. The Birth of Biopolitics. Lectures at the Collège de France, 1978–1979. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  22. Grill, J. 2018. Re-learning to Labour? Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute.
  23. Hansen, L. 2011a. Reconstructing Desecuritisation. Review of International Studies 38 (3): 525–546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. ———. 2011b. Theorizing the Image for Security Studies. European Journal of International Relations 17 (1): 51–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Huysmans, J. 2006. The Politics of Insecurity. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  26. Huysmans, J., A. Dobson, and R. Prokhovnik, eds. 2006. The Politics of Protection. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  27. Imre, A. 2015. Love to Hate: National Celebrity and Racial Intimacy on Reality TV in the New Europe. Television & New Media 16 (2): 103–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ivasiuc, A. 2018. Social Mobility and the Ambiguous Autonomy of Roma Migration. Intersections 4 (2): forthcoming.Google Scholar
  29. Jansen, Y., R. Celikates, and J. de Bloois, eds. 2015. The Irregularization of Migration in Contemporary Europe. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  30. Kalir, B. 2017. Between “Voluntary” Return Programs and Soft Deportation. In Return Migration and Psychosocial Wellbeing, ed. R. King and Z. Vathi, 56–71. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  31. Liégeois, J.-P. 1986. Gypsies: An Illustrated History. London: Saqi Books.Google Scholar
  32. Lucassen, L., W. Willems, and A. Cottaar. 1998. Gypsies and Other Itinerant Groups. Basingstoke: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Mayall, D. 2004. Gypsy Identities 1500–2000. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  34. Messing, V., and Á. Bereményi. 2017. Is Ethnicity a Meaningful Category of Employment Policies for Roma? Ethnic and Racial Studies 40 (10): 1623–1642.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Mezzadra, S. 2004. The Right to Escape. Ephemera 4 (3): 267–275.Google Scholar
  36. Mirzoeff, N. 2011. The Right to Look: A Counterhistory of Visuality. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  37. New Keywords Collective. 2016. Europe/Crisis: New Keywords of “the Crisis” in and of “Europe”. Near Futures Online 1 (1). Available at:
  38. Pogge, T. 2010. Politics as Usual. Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
  39. Scheel, S. 2015. Das Konzept der Autonomie der Migration überdenken? Yes, please! movements. Journal für kritische Migrations- und Grenzregimeforschung 1 (2): 1–15.Google Scholar
  40. Sigona, N., and N. Trehan, eds. 2009. Romani Politics in Contemporary Europe. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  41. Simhandl, K. 2006. “Western Gypsies and Travellers” – “Eastern Roma”. Nations and Nationalism 12 (1): 97–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Stenning, A., et al. 2010. Domesticating Neoliberalism. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Szeman, I. 2017. Staging Citizenship. Oxford: Berghahn.Google Scholar
  44. Tremlett, A. 2014. Demotic or Demonic? Race, Class and Gender in “Gypsy” Reality TV. The Sociological Review 62 (2): 316–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Turner, G. 2010. Ordinary People and the Media. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  46. van Baar, H. 2011a. The European Roma: Minority Representation, Memory and the Limits of Transnational Governmentality. Amsterdam: F&N.Google Scholar
  47. ———. 2011b. Europe’s Romaphobia: Problematization, Securitization, Nomadization. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 29 (2): 203–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. ———. 2012. Socio-Economic Mobility and Neo-Liberal Governmentality in Post-Socialist Europe. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 38 (8): 1289–1304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. ———. 2013. Homecoming at Witching Hour: The Securitization of the European Roma and the Reclaiming of Their Citizenship. In We Roma: A Critical Reader in Contemporary Art, ed. D. Baker and M. Hlavajova, 50–73. Utrecht: BAK/Valiz.Google Scholar
  50. ———. 2015. The Perpetual Mobile Machine of Forced Mobility. In The Irregularization of Migration in Contemporary Europe, ed. Y. Jansen, R. Celikates, and J. de Bloois, 71–86. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  51. ———. 2017a. Contained Mobility and the Racialization of Poverty in Europe: The Roma at the Development-Security Nexus. Social Identities.
  52. ———. 2017b. Evictability and the Biopolitical Bordering of Europe. Antipode 49 (1): 212–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. van Baar, H., and P. Vermeersch. 2017. The Limits of Operational Representations. Intersections 3 (4): 120–139.Google Scholar
  54. van der Stoel, M. 1993. Report on the Situation of Roma and Sinti in the CSCE Area. The Hague: Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe.Google Scholar
  55. Walby, S. 2015. Crisis. Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
  56. Walters, W. 2010. Imagined Migration World. In The Politics of International Migration Management, ed. M. Geiger and A. Pécoud, 73–95. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Willems, W. 1997. In Search of the True Gypsy. London: Frank Cass.Google Scholar
  58. Yıldız, C., and N. De Genova, eds. 2017. Un/free Mobility: Roma Migrants in the European Union. Special Issue of Social Identities,

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Justus Liebig University GiessenGiessenGermany

Personalised recommendations