Morphology and Flow Cytometry

  • Katja Sockel
  • Frank Kroschinsky
  • Uta Oelschlaegel
  • Arjan A. van de LoosdrechtEmail author
Part of the Hematologic Malignancies book series (HEMATOLOGIC)


Despite the rapid development of molecular markers during the last years, the morphology of blood and bone marrow cells still keeps the crucial role for diagnosis and subclassification of the different subtypes of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), as recently confirmed by the new 2016 WHO classification [1]. Nevertheless, morphologic diagnosis is not always self-evident. While increased blast cells are often in-line with advanced MDS subtypes, early forms with mild morphological changes can represent a diagnostic challenge. Especially in these cases, morphologic experience is crucial but should be embedded into further information on disease history, exclusion of other underlying diseases, as well as additional cytogenetic, molecular, and immunophenotypic data to confirm diagnosis of MDS.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Katja Sockel
    • 1
  • Frank Kroschinsky
    • 1
  • Uta Oelschlaegel
    • 1
  • Arjan A. van de Loosdrecht
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik 1Universitätsklinikum DresdenDresdenGermany
  2. 2.Department of HematologyVU University Medical Center, Cancer Center AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands

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