Hepatic Encephalopathy Diagnosis Conundrums

  • Sara MontagneseEmail author
  • Piero Amodio


Six relevant case histories are presented, to illustrate the clinical reasoning, tools and differential diagnosis pathways utilized in tertiary referral centres with a research interest in hepatic encephalopathy (HE) to diagnose or exclude this disease, especially within the context of neurological comorbidity. Conclusions are drawn on definitions and practical strategies, which will hopefully be relevant also to non-specialist hepatology and gastroenterology practitioners.


Definition Ammonia Differential diagnosis Dementia Imaging Neuropsychological profile 


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of MedicineUniversity of PadovaPadovaItaly

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