Impact and Diagnosis of Minimal or Grade 1 Hepatic Encephalopathy

  • Mette Munk LauridsenEmail author
  • Hendrik Vilstrup


Two case stories are presented to illustrate how and in whom minimal and grade 1 hepatic encephalopathy should be diagnosed. By definition the use of psychometric or neurophysiological tests is necessary for identifying minimal HE and such tests are also very useful for description of grad 1 HE. We put emphasis on how to apply and interpret the tests in clinical practise, i.e. in patients with differing cognitive prerequisites and co-morbid diseases. Further, the case stories highlight how fluctuating minimal and grade 1 HE impinges on the lives of patients and caregivers.


Diagnosis Psychometric tests Quality of life Fitness to drive Balance 


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Gastroenterology and HepatologyHospital of South West JutlandEsbjergDenmark
  2. 2.Department of Hepatology and GastroenterologyAarhus University HospitalAarhusDenmark

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