Insect Innate Immune Memory
Recent years have seen a surge in studies on insect immune memory. Here we provide an overview of the current state of evidence for immune memory mechanisms in insects. This group of animals is very heterogeneous, and understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind immune memory remains fragmentary. We discuss the role of DNA synthesis and endoreplication as a basis for retaining information gathered from previous contacts with pathogens and novel mechanisms to confront different pathogenic challenges. Finally, we discuss the ecological perspective of insect immune memory.
KeywordsImmune memory Priming DNA synthesis Endoreplication Notch pathway Delta Hindsight Antiviral response Insects Memory mechanisms
To Prof. Edwin L. Cooper for his kind invitation. One anonymous reviewer and E. Cooper provided substantial comments that improved somewhat initially this chapter. JCG received grants from CONACYT (Laboratorios nacionales 2017-280505) and UNAM (PAPIT IA205318).
Glossary: Key Definitions Regarding Immune Priming Theory
A challenge that activates the immune response and that may favor host molecule recognition.
Host-improved protection in terms of immune response, parasite elimination, and survival after been able to respond to a parasite, pathogen, or immune challenge following a first specific exposure; recognized within and across generations.
A condition where an immune response is activated by artificial methods such as adding probiotics or exposure to nonharming immune-stimulant molecules, rendering an immune response over the physiological levels or keeping pathogens at bay (microbiota effect on many pathogens) but without exhibiting specificity and memory. This may occur within and across generations, and the protection against a second challenge after a first challenge could be due to a sustained immune response or an unspecific biphasic response.
In invertebrate biology, it is difficult to determine specificity against an epitope of a given antigen. However, many molecules recognize molecular patterns such as Scavenger receptors, Toll-like receptors, and Nod-like receptors (NLRs), which bind and transduce specific signals to molecules present in pathogens without exhibiting high specificity as vertebrate immunoglobulins. At a functional level, immune protection should occur, for example, in homologous (similar) challenges with the same parasite or pathogen species or strains rather than in heterologous (dissimilar) challenges. This means that the secondary response should only be elicited by homologous challenges or should be stronger and faster than heterologous challenges.
Humoral and cellular responses not directly linked to a given pathogen’s structure. For example, a first challenge with a fungus may protect against Gram-positive bacteria, nematodes, or yeasts.
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