Promising Biomolecules

  • Isabel Oliveira
  • Ana L. Carvalho
  • Hajer RadhouaniEmail author
  • Cristiana Gonçalves
  • J. Miguel Oliveira
  • Rui L. Reis
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1059)


The osteochondral defect (OD) comprises the articular cartilage and its subchondral bone. The treatment of these lesions remains as one of the most problematic clinical issues, since these defects include different tissues, requiring distinct healing approaches. Among the growing applications of regenerative medicine, clinical articular cartilage repair has been used for two decades, and it is an effective example of translational medicine; one of the most used cell-based repair strategies includes implantation of autologous cells in degradable scaffolds such as alginate, agarose, collagen, chitosan, chondroitin sulfate, cellulose, silk fibroin, hyaluronic acid, and gelatin, among others. Concerning the repair of osteochondral defects, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine started to design single- or bi-phased scaffold constructs, often containing hydroxyapatite-collagen composites, usually used as a bone substitute. Biomolecules such as natural and synthetic have been explored to recreate the cartilage-bone interface through multilayered biomimetic scaffolds. In this chapter, a succinct description about the most relevant natural and synthetic biomolecules used on cartilage and bone repair, describing the procedures to obtain these biomolecules, their chemical structure, common modifications to improve its characteristics, and also their application in the biomedical fields, is given.


Synthetic biomolecules Natural biomolecules Bone repair Cartilage repair Osteochondral defects 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Isabel Oliveira
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ana L. Carvalho
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hajer Radhouani
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Cristiana Gonçalves
    • 1
    • 2
  • J. Miguel Oliveira
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Rui L. Reis
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.3B’s Research Group – Biomolecules, Biodegradables and Biomimetics, University of Minho, Headquarters of the European Institute of Excellence on Tissue Engineering and Regenerative MedicineBarco, GuimarãesPortugal
  2. 2.ICVS/3B’s – PT Government Associate LaboratoryBraga/GuimarãesPortugal
  3. 3.The Discoveries Centre for Regenerative and Precision Medicine, Headquarters at University of MinhoBarco/GuimarãesPortugal

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